The incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship to the 2012 Human Development Index of Asia

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Amir Tiyuri Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Elham Iziy Hamidreza Sadeghi Gandomani Hamid Salehiniya


Introduction: Lip and oral cavity cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in Asia and considered to be a major public health problem due to the low survival rate. Because of the importance of access to information about this cancer (including incidence, mortality rate and relation to socioeconomic indicators), this study aims at investigating the incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) of Asia (from 2012).

Method: This study was an ecological study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with the HDI and its components which include: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. Data on the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for every Asian country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project and data on the HDI and its components were extracted from the World bank site. 

We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between the SIR and SMR with the HDI and its individual components. Statistical significance was assumed if P<0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.).

Results: A total incidence of 162,506 cases and 95,005 deaths were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Countries with the highest SIR (per 100,000) were the following: Maldives (11), Sri Lanka (10.3), Pakistan (9.8), Bangladesh (9.4), and India (7.2). The highest SMR was observed in the following countries: Pakistan (5.9), Bangladesh (5.6), Afghanistan (5.1), India (4.9), and Maldives (4.1). The correlation between SIR of lip and oral cavity cancer and HDI was -0.378 (p=0.010), with life expectancy at birth at -0.324 (p=0.028), mean years of schooling at -0.283 (p=0.057), and level of income per each person of the population at -0.279 (p=0.060). Moreover, the correlation was -0.664 (p≤0.001) between SMR and HDI.

Conclusion: A significant reverse correlation was seen between the incidence and mortality rate of lip and oral cavity cancer and the HDI in Asia. The incidence and mortality of this type of cancer was high in developing or less developed countries. 



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TIYURI, Amir et al. The incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship to the 2012 Human Development Index of Asia. Biomedical Research and Therapy, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 02, p. 1147-1165, feb. 2017. ISSN 2198-4093. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 oct. 2017. doi:
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