Efficacy of fluoride varnish for prevention of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: A systematic review study

Main Article Content

Farshad Rahimi Masoud Sadeghi http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3586-3012 Hamid Reza Mozaffari http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9351-1499


Background: White spot lesions (WSLs) are a problem commonly found in patients who use orthodontic devices. Fluoride varnish can reduce WSLs during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoride varnish compared with other agents for preventing WSLs during orthodontic treatment.

Methods: Studies were searched from four databases- PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library- from January 1980 to May 2017; only studies with English abstracts were included.

Results: Out of 432 studies searched from the databases, 33 studies were evaluated for eligibility. Of the 33 studies, 19 were excluded with reasons and 14 studies were included in the systematic review. Parameters of WSLs (decalcification score, prevalence, incidence, progression score, ΔQ and ΔZ and DiagnoDent (DD) pen score) were compared for the various treatments.

Conclusions: Although there were some limitations for this systematic review study, the review showed that fluoride varnish combined with chlorhexidine (CHX) may be a good treatment for WSLs after orthodontic treatment, especially for a 6-month period, and that resin infiltration might also be effective for preventing WSLs. More studies are needed to further investigate these observations.

Peer Review Details

  • Peer review method: Single-Blind  (Peer-reviewers: 02) Peer-review policy
  • Plagiarism software screening?: Yes
  • Date of Original Submission: 06 July 2017
  • Date accepted: 25 August 2017
  • Peer reviewers approved by: Dr. Lili Hami
  • Editor who approved publication: Dr. Phuc Van Pham



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How to Cite
RAHIMI, Farshad; SADEGHI, Masoud; MOZAFFARI, Hamid Reza. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for prevention of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: A systematic review study. Biomedical Research and Therapy, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 08, p. 1513-1526, aug. 2017. ISSN 2198-4093. Available at: <http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/222>. Date accessed: 21 sep. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.15419/bmrat.v4i08.222.