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There is little about the incidence, mortality and risk factors of Esophageal cancer (EC) in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate, mortality and EC risk factors in the world. This review study was conducted on published English research by January 2017 with the search in by March 2018 by searching in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct with the keywords "esophagus cancer," "epidemiology," "incidence," "mortality," "risk factor," " world." Based on the findings of this study, the geographical distribution of the EC differs according to subtitles, as AC is more prevalent in developed countries, while SCC is more prevalent in countries in Africa and East Asia. The most important risk factors for EC are the low intake of vegetables and fruits, drinking drinks and hot liquids, reducing the intake of nutritional supplements such as selenium and zinc, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, past medical history, obesity and exposure to some environmental factors. According to the findings, it seems that the main cause of EC- is an undesirable lifestyle. Therefore, it is possible to improve the lifestyle and inform the community about EC risk factors and healthy lifestyle education.

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Issue: Vol 5 No 7 (2018)
Page No.: 2504-2517
Published: Jul 28, 2018
Section: Reviews

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Copyright: The Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 How to Cite
Yousefi, M., Sharifi-Esfahani, M., Pourgholam-Amiji, N., Afshar, M., Sadeghi-Gandomani, H., Otroshi, O., & Salehiniya, H. (2018). Esophageal cancer in the world: incidence, mortality and risk factors. Biomedical Research and Therapy, 5(7), 2504-2517.

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