Biomedical Research and Therapy 2018-05-23T15:30:01+07:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems The relationship between Statins and the risk of lung cancer 2018-05-23T15:29:59+07:00 Hamid Salehiniya Khadijah Allah Bakeshei Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani <p>Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. There are annually around 1600000 of new cases and more than 1400000 deaths from this disease worldwide. Lung cancer accounted for 26% of death from cancer in females in the United States in 2012 and 29% of death from cancer in males. Statins are known as the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Statins are usually used as the cholesterol-lowering drugs. The recent studies have proved the benefits of Statins in reducing the mortality and incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke.</p> 2018-05-15T14:28:11+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The pattern of antibiotic resistance of pathogens isolated from urine cultures of patients referred to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2012-2013 2018-05-23T15:29:58+07:00 Mahmood Vakili Zaher Khazaei Jamshid Ayatollahi Salman Khazaei Hamed Poorrahim Elham Goodarzi Malihe Sohrabivafa Seyedeh Leila Dehghani Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second leading cause of infection in communities. Determination of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria is important to choose an effective treatment against a particular microbe. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance of pathogens isolated from urine cultures of patients referred to Yazd Central Laboratory (located in Yazd, Iran).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on subjects who were referred to the Central Laboratory in Yazd for urine culture testing. The data was collected from all positive urine cultures. A frequency distribution table was used for descriptive statistics; Chi-square test was used to compare subgroups. Data were analyzed using Stata software version 12 (Stata Corp LP, College Station, Texas).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 2014 samples of positive urine cultures were obtained during 2012-2013. Of these, 1875 (88.6%) samples were from females and 229 (11.4%) samples were from males. The prevalence of infection was most common in the age group of 50 years or older, with 594 (29.5%) cases. E. coli and Klebsiella represented 68% and 10.2% of the cases, respectively; these bacterial strains were the most prevalent in patients. The strongest antibiotic resistance in patients was towards the antibiotic ampicillin. For most of the antibiotics, the antibiotic resistance was significantly greater in males compared to females (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Resistance to antibiotics in all investigated bacteria strains was common. For both sexes, the highest antibiotic resistance occurred in patients less than 50 years of age; the resistance was towards ampicillin. For the group over 50 years of age, the greatest antibiotic resistance was towards ceftizoxime. The subject of antibiotic resistance, therefore, should be studied in further detail since antibiotic resistance has great impact on health issues, such as UTIs.</p> 2018-05-15T16:59:38+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concise Review: Herbal remedies for the treatment of nausea and vomiting 2018-05-23T15:30:01+07:00 Azam Mohsenzadeh Shokoufeh Ahmadipour Parisa Rahmani Parmida Shakarami <p><strong>Background</strong>: Vomiting occurs when the contractions of stomach muscle walls cause a large amount of the stomach content to go upward and flow back into the esophagus; this process is very common among infants. The aim of this review was to present the effects of medicinal plants on vomiting.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In the current review, articles indexed in databases such as ISI, PubMed, Scopus, Islamic World Science Citation Center, Scientific Information Database, and Magiran were retrieved using the search terms ‘vomiting’, ‘nausea’, ‘medicinal plants’, and ‘traditional medicine’.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Based on the research findings, the medicinal plants Zingiber officinale, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Matricaria chamomilla, Lavandula angustifolia, Allium cepa, Oryza sativa, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Elettaria cardamomum, Pimpinella anisum, Ferula assa-foetida, Ocimum basilicum, and Musa sapientum were selected as the focus.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In traditional medicine, treatment for vomiting is relevant, especially in children. The mechanisms of some of these plants have been understood but for many they are still unclear. Further investigations are needed to understand more about these medicinal plants and their mechanism of action for effective use in the clinic.</p> 2018-05-11T16:01:51+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concise review: Herbal remedies and herbal plants for constipation in children 2018-05-23T15:30:00+07:00 Marjan Vakili Shokoufeh Ahmadipour Parisa Rahmani <p><strong>Background</strong>: Constipation refers to difficult or delayed bowel emptying lasting 2 weeks or more and causing anxiety and distress in patients, and it is one of the most common problems in children. To treat constipation, therapeutic measures such as nutritional methods, feedback training, osmotic laxatives and stimulants, as well as stool volume enhancers, are used; however, each has its own problems and side effects. Medicinal plants have been shown to be effective in the treatment of many diseases, including constipation. Therefore, this review was conducted to report the medicinal plants effective for constipation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In the current review, eligible articles indexed from databases such as ISI (Web of Science), PubMed, Scopus, Islamic World Science Citation Center, Scientific Information Database, and Magiran were retrieved using the keywords ‘constipation’, ‘children constipation’, ‘baby’s and newborn constipation’, ‘medicinal plants’, and ‘traditional medicine’.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Available evidence showed that the medicinal plants <em>Olea europaea, Phaseolus vulgaris, Prunus armeniaca, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Malus domestica, Linum usitatissimum, Aloe vera, Vitis vinifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Ficus carica, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum</em>, and <em>Descurainia sophia</em> are some of the most important medicinal plants for the treatment of constipation in traditional medicine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Herbal plants are important for isolation/ preparation of new drugs in the treatment of constipation in children. In future studies, it may be beneficial to further understand and classify herbal plants/remedies, based on their mechanisms, as laxatives in the treatment of constipation.</p> 2018-05-15T13:20:59+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Surgical outcomes for lumbar spinal canal stenosis in elderly patients 2018-05-23T15:29:57+07:00 Babak Mirzashahi Mohammad Aghajani Fatemeh Mirbazegh Jayran Zebardast Elham Ghasemi <p><strong>Purpose of the study</strong>: To understand surgical outcomes, based on standardized tools, after surgery of lumbar spinal canal stenosis in patients aged 65 years and older.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 58 elderly patients before and after surgery. Demographic data, procedures, perioperative comorbidities, preoperative and postoperative pain intensity, primary activities of daily living, quality of life, and fear avoidance were collected at baseline. All patients were followed up to 6 and 12 months after operation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Following surgery, there was a significant reduction in the VAS scale (for pain severity) and fear avoidance beliefs (FAB) questionnaire scale (P&lt;0.001), and a significant increase in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) index and the Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living (ADL), which assesses functional independence) (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Implication</strong>: The present study suggests that surgery in elderly patients is effective for the treatment of spinal stenosis, in those patients who did not respond well to conservative treatment.</p> 2018-05-19T14:16:48+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prebiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A randomized clinical trial 2018-05-23T15:29:56+07:00 Akram Kooshki Zaher Khazaei Azam Zarghi Mojtaba Rad Yaser Tabaraie <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: There is evidence of the curing effects of prebiotics in promoting growth of bifid bacterium in the digestive system and the central role of bacteria colonization in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of a prebiotic, namely fenugreek seeds, on VAP prevention and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, 60 mechanically ventilated patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=30 per group). Group 1 was given fenugreek seed powder by gavage, twice a day in addition to routine care, while group 2 received only routine care. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and clinical responses to the primary component (prevalence of VAP) and secondary component (other clinical factors) were interpreted. Data were analyzed via SPSS v.20, using student t-test, chi-square test, repeated measure ANOVA, and Wilcoxon test.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: There was a significant reduction of patients diagnosed with VAP, as well as clostridium difficileassociated diarrhea and some complications of mechanical ventilation, in group 1 when compared to group 2. In addition, improvement in VAP was significantly greater for group 1 as compared with group 2. Mortality rates were not different between the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The present study demonstrated that daily diet with fenugreek seeds can be used as an add-on therapy with other medications in prevention of VAP. As a result, the use of fenugreek seeds in the treatment plan of patients undergoing long-term intubation is recommended.</p> 2018-05-19T15:26:15+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of fetal middle cerebral artery versus umbilical artery color Doppler ultrasound for predicting neonatal outcome in complicated pregnancies with fetal growth restriction 2018-05-23T15:29:54+07:00 Fatemeh Rahimi Sharbaf Fatemeh Movahed Reihaneh Pirjani Nastaran Teimoory Mamak Shariat Zahra Farahani <p><strong>Background</strong>: Although using Doppler ultrasonography of umbilical structures is a common method for predicting prenatal adverse outcome, recent studies have proposed the importance of middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler assessment for antenatal monitoring. The aim of the present study was to compare alterations in the fetalMCAversus umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility indices (PI) in complicated pregnancies by fetal growth restriction (FGR).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cohort study was carried out in Yas Hospital (Tehran, Iran) in 2016. One hundred fifty pregnant women in third trimester with estimation of FGR participated in the study. Transabdominal ultrasound was performed to determine fetal weight. After birth, all neonates were divided into 2 groups: small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA.We compared the values of UA and MCA Doppler in predicting SGA. Data were analyzed with t-test and Chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After delivery, 126 mothers had SGA while 24 subjects had non-SGA neonates. Unlike UA PI, MCA artery PI of the SGA and non-SGA groups were significantly different (p=0.062 for UA PI comparison; p=0.0001 for MCA PI comparison). Of the 126 cases, there was decreased MCA PI in 40.5% of fetuses and increased UA PI in 22.2% of fetuses. There were significant differences in both sensitivity and specificity for MCA PI versus UA PI (p=0.014 for sensitivity; p=0.009 for specificity).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Results showed that of all the SGA cases, a decrease in MCA PI was more notable than changes in UA PI. Sensitivity, specificity and prediction of SGA for MCA PI were higher than those for UA PI.</p> 2018-05-21T15:23:25+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Therapeutic effects of topically-administered guar gum nanoparticles in oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis in mice 2018-05-23T15:29:53+07:00 Nandita Ghosh Shinjini Mitra Ena Ray Banerjee <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic disease of the skin, involving itchy, reddish and scaly lesions. It mainly affects children and has a high prevalence in developing countries. AD may occur due to environmental or genetic factors. Currently, all therapeutic strategies involve methods to simply alleviate the symptoms, and include lotions and corticosteroids, which have adverse effects. Use of phytochemicals and natural products has not yet been exploited fully. The particle used in this study is derived from <em>Cyamopsis tetragonoloba</em>, an edible polysaccharide with a galactomannan component. The mannose component mainly increases its specificity towards cellular uptake by mannose receptors, highly expressed by macrophages. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of guar gum nanoparticles (GN)<em> in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> in AD.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: To assess the wound healing capacity of GN, we first treated adherent fibroblast cells, with a scratch injury, with GN. GN successfully healed the wound caused by the scratch. In the <em>in vivo</em> experiments, Balb/c mice ears were treated topically with oxazolone (Oxa) to induce AD, and then were topically treated with GN. The ear thickness increased significantly until day 28 upon treatment with Oxa.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Application of GN showed a significant decrease in ear thickness as assessed on day 28. The total cell count of skin cells that showed a fold increase, when treated with Oxa, was again decreased after topical application of GN on the affected skin. The eosinophil count, as assessed by Giemsa staining, was also increased when treated with Oxa, while GN application led to a significant decrease. Serum IgE levels were restored by GN. T helper cell and macrophage populations, when examined by flow cytometry, showed an increase in percentage when treated with Oxa; the percentage was reduced after application of GN. Hematoxylin &amp; Eosin (H&amp;E) staining of the ear tissue showed an increase in epidermal thickness in Oxa-treated mice, while GN application showed reduced cellular infiltration and epidermal thickness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overall, our results showed that GN, when administered topically, was successful in alleviating dermatitis caused by Oxa.</p> 2018-05-22T12:23:31+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fibrosarcoma of Mandible Presenting As Secondary Primary Tumour - A Cytological Diagnosis 2018-05-23T15:29:52+07:00 Manna Sulagna Raju Kalyani Mohiyuddin Azeem <p>Fibrosarcoma of bone occur in any location but mainly affects long bone. Its occurrence in craniofacial region is about 15%, mandible being the most common site. Fibrosarcoma of hed and neck area represents 5% of all malignant intraosseous tumours. It is commonly seen between 3rdto 6thdecades of life. Here we present a case in 65 years old female with past history of radiotherapy for carcinoma of buccal mucosa and now presents with fibrosarcoma of the left jaw which was diagnosed by FNAC and confirmed by biopsy.</p> 2018-05-22T15:00:04+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##