Biomedical Research and Therapy 2018-01-18T14:27:45+07:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems Role of socioeconomic disparities in incidence and mortality of chronic kidney disease 2018-01-18T14:27:41+07:00 Mahdi Mohammadian Hamid Salehiniya Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem known as one of the most important factors for premature death (Coresh et al., 2007; Martins et al., 2012). The disparity in the distribution of CKD is due to the socio-economic factors, gender, ethnicity and race at the global level (Norris and Nissenson, 2008; Norris and Agodoa, 2005). Roles of socio-economic conditions have been recently taken into account as a key factor in the pathway of CKD creation and expansion (Bruce et al., 2009; Nicholas et al., 2015). Several studies worldwide investigated a strong relationship between socioeconomic status and incidence of CKD complications (Crews et al., 2012; Jurkovitz et al., 2012; Saab et al., 2012).</p> 2017-12-18T16:35:06+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role of statin in increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus 2018-01-18T14:27:40+07:00 Mahdi Mohammadian Hamid Salehiniya Jamshid Ovisey Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani <p>Statin is known as one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States (Bhattacharya et al., 2014). This drug is widely used with the aim to prevent risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases as well as reduction of mortality from these diseases (Mohammadian et al., 2015; Ong et al., 2014). Several studies have recently paid attention to roles of Statins in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on results of several clinical trials on prevention of cardiovascular diseases, Statin leads to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (Crandall et al., 2017). This drug leads to an increase at fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood sugar levels in recipients (Mohammadian et al., 2017; Ridker et al., 2012).</p> 2017-12-18T16:52:56+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Incidence, mortality and risk factors of cervical cancer in the world 2018-01-18T14:27:44+07:00 Zohre Momenimovahed Hamid Salehiniya <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cervical cancer imposes a huge global burden. To date, various studies have been conducted on the risk factors associated with cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, mortality, and geographical distribution of cervical cancer and its risk factors in the world.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of sciences, Scopus, and Google Scholar to search for studies published between 2000 and 2017. The keywords used included cervical cancer, cervix uteri cancer, risk factor, incidence, mortality, and a combination of these terms.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of this study showed that the incidence of cervical cancer varies considerably between developed and developing countries. The findings of this study demonstrated that several factors including sexually transmitted infections, reproductive factors, hormonal influences, genetics and host factors are responsible for the incidence of cervical cancer.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion</strong>: The results of this review study suggested that combination of biological, economic and health factors contributes to the incidence of cervical cancer. A large proportion cervical cancer can be prevented by prevention programs, lifestyle enhancement, smoking cessation, and timely and effective treatment of pre-cancerous lesions.</p> 2017-12-08T16:24:16+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential role of Factor V Leiden mutation in adverse pregnancy outcomes: An updated systematic review 2018-01-18T14:27:42+07:00 Nasibeh Roozbeh Farzaneh Banihashemi Mitra Mehraban Fatemeh Abdi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Thrombophilia is an inherited or acquired predisposition for development of thrombosis. One of the common thrombophilia polymorphisms is Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, which may contribute to negative pregnancy outcomes. This systematic review study seeks to describe the potential effects of factor V Leiden mutation on adverse pregnancy outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Pubmed, Embase, ISI Web of Sciences, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest and Google Scholar, for articles published during 1996-2017. Articles were evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist for standard reporting. As well, the quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 14 studies were eligible based on the inclusion criteria. The papers were scored by the STROBE checklist. The range of STROBE score was 15-20. Only 37.5% of the studies confirmed the relationship between fetal loss and FVL. The effect of FVL mutation on spontaneous abortions and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) failures was demonstrated in all the studies. In the reviewed studies, there was no observed relationship between FVL mutation with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia, placental abruption or small for gestational age (SGA).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The reviewed studies showed an unclear association between FVL mutation and stillbirth, IUGR, preeclampsia, or placental abruption. The exact effects of hereditary thrombophilia on pregnancy outcome is also still controversial. However, FVL mutation appeared to have an effect on spontaneous abortions and IVF failures. Therefore, screening patients for thrombophilic polymorphisms might be helpful.</p> 2017-12-18T15:49:10+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Developing a high resolution melting method for genotyping and predicting association of SNP rs353291 with breast cancer in the Vietnamese population 2018-01-18T14:27:45+07:00 Luan Huu Huynh Phuong Thi-Kim Bui Thanh Thi-Ngoc Nguyen Hue Thi Nguyen <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Breast cancer is the one of the most common types of cancer as well as the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the world. In recent studies, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play a crucial role as a new potential biomarker in the association with breast cancer. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located on specific miRNA may result in breast cancer. Among the SNPs, SNP rs353291 has shown to be associated with breast cancer in individuals of Caucasian background. Furthermore, this SNP is observed in a high percentage of mutant alleles in the Vietnamese population. Thus, SNP rs353291 was selected as a candidate SNP for investigation in this study. The frequency of SNP rs353291 was evaluated by High Resolution Melting (HRM) method, which is a highly powerful method to detect variants in DNA sequence, especially for SNP genotyping.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, the association between this SNP and risk of breast cancer in the Vietnamese population was evaluated in 90 cases and 96 healthy controls via genotyping using an optimized HRM protocol.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The genotyping results revealed that SNP rs353291 is a polymorphism in the Vietnamese population. We have successfully identified frequencies of AA, AG and GG to be 40%, 42.2% and 17.8%, respectively. In particular, the calculated frequencies of allele G was 61.1% while risk allele A was 38.9%. The association between this SNP and breast cancer in Vietnam revealed that there is an obvious decreased risk of breast cancer among Vietnamese population when comparing G allele to A allele (G vs A: OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.62-1.36, p= 0.677); the results also showed that heterozygote model had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared to dominant model (GA+GG vs AA: OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.52-1.70, p=0.839).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: However, since the p-values were &gt;0.05, our results only show a correlation rather than a significant association between SNP rs353291 and breast cancer risk in the Vietnamese population.</p> 2017-12-08T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psychosocial adjustment to cancer and its associated factors in patients undergoing chemotherapy: A cross-sectional study 2018-01-18T14:27:39+07:00 Mohsen Taghadosi Zeinab Tajamoli Mohammad Aghajani <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adjustment to cancer refers to functions adopted by an individual for sustaining health and well-being, and leads to a better life and improved quality of life. Failure to adjust causes anxiety, depression, distress, and behavioral problems. The aim of study was to assess psychosocial adjustment to cancer and its associated factors in patients undergoing chemotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study recruited 260 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at a hospital center in Kashan, Iran in 2016. Data collection tools included demographic details, Psychological Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS), and adherence to religious beliefs (Temple). Samples were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 software using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of participants was 54.76±13.82 years, duration with cancer was 10.11±18.89 months, duration of treatment with chemotherapy was 4.8±6.2 months, and the mean score adjustment was 50.1±17.18. Adjustment was found to be significantly related to education, marital status, financial status, employment, and adherence to religious beliefs, but not to age, duration with cancer, duration of chemotherapy, or place of residence. Patients with no metastasis were better adjusted compared to other groups, with a significant difference from the other groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: More than half of patients had moderate to high levels of adjustment. Patients with poor education, self-employment, no family support, low adherence to religious beliefs, and with metastasis displayed poorer adjustment levels; all of these negatively affected their adjustment to cancer. Thus, patients undergoing chemotherapy need greater family, social, and economic support for adjustment.</p> 2017-12-21T01:56:09+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use of fresh human amniotic membrane for improvement of rabbit perianal surgery wounds 2018-01-18T14:27:37+07:00 Alireza Khazaei Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi Hadi Okati Masoum Khoshfetrat Fahimeh Shibak <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The use of fresh human amniotic membrane as an accelerating factor for injury repair has been considered for improvement of various injuries, particularly burns, and has shown significant effects. Perianal surgeries, however, have a high recurrence rate due to the anatomy of the area. Thus, finding an effective method in postoperative care may play an important role in improving the quality of surgical procedures in this area. Considering the high recurrent rate of injury in the perianal region and the need for more effective post-surgical care, this study was aimed at evaluating the effects of using amniotic membrane for wound improvement following perianal surgery in a rabbit model.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into two groups. After the rabbits received anesthesia and perianal surgery, group A rabbits received fresh human amniotic membranes (measuring 1x1 cm) to potentially repair the surgical wounds, while group B rabbits did not receive the membranes. The data were analyzed using t-tests and in order to confirm the normal distribution of data, Kolmogorov-Simonov test was used (P=0.03).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In this study, the Abramov surgical wound scoring system was used to determine the wound improvement rate in all specimens. According to the results, this rate was significantly higher in the group administered with amniotic membrane (group A; P=0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The use of fresh human amniotic membrane plays an important role in the improvement of perianal surgical wounds in rabbits. Thus, this method may be more effective than other methods without membrane anesthetic surgeries.</p> 2017-12-26T02:04:57+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sexual knowledge and attitude as predictors of female sexual satisfaction 2018-01-18T14:27:36+07:00 Farzaneh Soltani Roghaye Azizi Hadis Sourinegad Arezo Shayan Younes Mohammadi Batoul Khodakarami <p><strong>Background</strong>: Complaints about sexuality is more common among women in comparison to men. Designing effective interventions in this field requires the identification of predictive factors. This study aims to predict the sexual satisfaction of women based on the components of knowledge and attitude.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 480 women who had been referred to Hamedan health centers were selected by two-stage cluster sampling; they completed Hadson sexual satisfaction questionnaires as well as SKAS knowledge and attitude questionnaire. In addition to descriptive analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationships between variables and finally, linear regression was used to determine the relationship between variables by eliminating confounding factors.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of the analysis revealed a positive and direct correlation between the variables of sexual satisfaction and sexual attitude. There was a positive and significant relationship between sexual satisfaction and sexual knowledge (r=0.442, P=0.000) and sexual satisfaction and sexual attitude (r=0.506, P=0.000); i.e. increase in knowledge and attitude about sexual issues are associated with enhancement of sexual satisfaction. The predicted sexual satisfaction of married women was predominantly attributed to sexual attitude.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of our analysis showed that women's knowledge and attitudes can predict their sexual satisfaction. Therefore, increasing sexual knowledge and improving the attitude of women should bring about greater sexual satisfaction for women. By designing and implementing effective educational interventions and counseling aimed at promoting women's sexual knowledge and improving false beliefs, effective steps can be taken to preserve and enhance the sexual health of women and, consequently, couples.</p> 2017-12-27T08:58:26+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber
layer thickness in patients receiving Electro-Convulsive Therapy 2018-01-18T14:27:35+07:00 Kourosh Shahraki Alireza Khosravi Shiva Kaffashipour Kianoush Shahraki Masoud Sadeghi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a method commonly used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. As ocular side effects from OCT are less studied and discussed, the aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients receiving ECT.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This study was performed on 30 patients who had indication for ECT. After recording demographic data, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) of optic nerve head and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our results showed that for most of the studied variables, the normal range was observed in less than 85% of patients receiving ECT. Variables which were outside the normal range were: cup disk (C/D) ratio (right and left eyes were 50% and 46.7%, respectively), vertical C/D ratio (right and left eyes were 53.3% and 46.7%, respectively), and cup volume (right and left eyes were 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed that a high percentage of patients receiving ECT had changes in the optic nerve head while intra-ocular pressure in these patients was normal. It is warranted for examiners to pay attention to diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma in patients receiving ECT.</p> 2017-12-27T09:59:11+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Port catheter complications and thrombosis issues: assessment of 114 patients with port catheter implantation by single surgeon 2018-01-18T14:27:34+07:00 ANBAR Ruchan AVCI Deniz CETİNKAYA Ali <p><strong>Background</strong>: We provided a comparative presentation of complications seen in 114 patients with port catheter implantation. In addition, we addressed whether patients with catheter-related thrombosis have distinctive features by assessing patients who developed thrombosis either at the catheter implant site or vascular bed.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, we analyzed data from 114 patients who underwent subclavian venous port catheter implantation by a single surgeon at Kayseri Teaching Hospital (Turkey) during 2013 to 2016. Subclavian port catheter was inserted in all cases. The diagnosis of port thrombosis was made by Doppler sonography or thorax CT scan with contrast enhancement in patients presenting with edema at upper extremity, swelling or pain at neck, and/or dysfunctional port.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Seroma was detected in only one case, lymphedema developed in one case (0.8%), and pneumothorax was observed in 3 cases. The subclavian vein was implanted on the right side in all patients with pneumothorax. None of these cases were associated with thrombosis. Port infection was observed in one case (0.8%). There was also one case (0.8%) of skin necrosis. The port was removed in 15 patients due to several reasons, which are indicated in Table 2. Thromboembolic events were observed in 11 of the 114 patients while port thrombosis was observed in 7 patients. The rate of hypertension in the thromboembolism group was 61.1% (11/18 individual) while the rate of hypertension in the group without thromboembolism was 28.1% (27/96 individuals); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.006).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this study, based on complications observed in patients with catheter-related thrombosis, factors such as smoking or diabetes mellitus were seen to be linked to thromboembolism and should be taken into consideration. Moreover, it was observed that hypertension had a significant association with thromboembolism.</p> 2017-12-29T02:04:45+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##