Biomedical Research and Therapy 2019-05-21T08:45:53+00:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems Glycan regulation in cancer, nervous and immune system: A narrative review 2019-05-21T08:45:51+00:00 Hamad Haider Khan Bingyin Shi Yang Tian Ting Wang Shida Hussain Faiz Ullah Khan Zakir Khan Beenish Ashfaq Hussain Ahmad Tauseef Ahmad <p>Glycans are carbohydrate components of glycoconjugates, which interact with their receptors; for example, galectins and C-type lectins. The specificity to their receptors makes them the ideal biomarkers that they can be used as a therapeutic target or as a screening tool. We collected and reviewed articles from different databases, which show that glycans play a significant role in several body functions, such as stimulation of the immune system, and can be used in the differentiation among cancer types. They also help in nervous system repair, regeneration, regulation and proliferation. Furthermore, several pathogens like Schistosoma, HIV, Influenza, Candida, and Ebola produce glycoproteins to aid in the invasion via attachment to surface glycoproteins and defend themselves against the host's immune system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cytology-histology correlation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic samples at a tertiary health care center: A two-year study 2019-05-21T08:45:53+00:00 Kalyani Raju Supreetha Megalamane Sunanda Varsha Shree Rajanna <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cytology-histology correlation is a method of detection of an error in the diagnostic field. The root cause analysis is done for the discordant cases for quality improvement of the laboratory reports. Aims: To find out the root cause in discordant cytology-histology case pairs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a Retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. The study was done from January 2016 to December 2017. All FNAC and Pap test cases which had corresponding biopsy slides and reports are included in the study. The discordant cases were classified as sampling error, interpretation error, cytology error, and histopathology error. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for the analysis of results.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of total 639 case pairs, gynecologic case pairs were 447, and nongynecologic case pairs were 192. Among the gynecologic cases, the concordance between cytology and histopathology diagnosis were 425 (95%) and discordance 22 (5%) of which discrepancy in cytology was 11, histopathology was seven, and both cytology and histopathology error was four. The interpretation error was 14, and the sampling error was nine. Among non-gynecologic cases, the concordance between cytology and histopathology diagnosis were 167 (86%) and discordance 25 (14%) of which discrepancy in cytology was 17, histopathology was seven, and both cytology and histopathology error was one. The interpretation error was 16, and the sampling error was ten. The discordance versus concordance ratio was 1:19.3, 1:6.68 and 1:12.5 for gynecology, non-gynecology, and total case pairs respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The percentage of error in gynecologic cases was within the range of published data. However, those of non-gynecology cases were slightly higher. Regular professional training and improvement of sampling techniques especially the guided FNAC can reduce the errors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Vitamin D deficiency in lower extremity and pulmonary venous thromboembolism 2019-05-21T08:45:52+00:00 Khatereh Dehghani Aygin Nowrouzi Amir Hossein Pourdavood Zhila Rahmanian <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Vitamin D deficiency increases inflammation and dysfunction of pancreas betacells, resulting in atherosclerotic disorders, cerebrovascular disorder, and CVDs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In the present cross-sectional study, vitamin D was evaluated in the plasma of 42 patients with lower extremity DVT or PE, as well as 42 healthy controls. Using the chemiluminescence assay, the plasma vitamin D levels were determined. After collection, the blood samples were examined within 60 minutes. Vitamin D levels were classified as sufficient, insufficient, and deficient (&gt; 30 ng/mL, 20- 29 ng/mL, and &lt; 20 ng/mL, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of deficiency in vitamin D was higher in the cases than the controls. The two groups were significantly different regarding vitamin D levels (p = 0.024). Based on the vitamin D classification, deficiency was reported in 30 (71.4%) patients and 18 (42.9%) controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings indicated that VTE patients had lower concentration of vitamin D, and the correlation between VTE and vitamin D deficiency was confirmed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-04-29T15:10:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of biomarkers between genotypes 1a and 3a in hepatitis C virus patients with control group 2019-05-21T08:45:49+00:00 Sajjad Yazdansetad Hadi Razavi Nikoo Seyed Mahmoud Azimi Alireza Mohebbi Massumeh Niazi Mehdi Ajorloo <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Three percent of people worldwide are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). A few studies have been performed to evaluate the biochemical markers of the disease. In the current study, biochemical markers were evaluated in HCV patients and the control group.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Two sex- and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 100) and HCV positive patients (n = 100) were included (mean age of 20-75, 26.0% females and 74.0% males). Biochemical markers, including liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), lipid profiles (cholesterol, LDL, and HDL) and triglyceride (TG) were investigated in both groups. HCV genotyping was also performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and OHNO methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The biochemical markers between HCV patients and controls were compared (cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, LDL: p = 0.0001, HDL: p = 0.002, TG: p = 0.003), and statistically significant difference was found between two groups. The biochemical markers between HCV patients and the control group in terms of age was compared and no differences was observed (p = 0.741), however, there was a significant difference in sex between HCV patients and control group (26.0% females, 74.0% males in control group, and x% females and y% males in HCV patients) (p = 0.032). The results of HCV genotyping showed that 39 patients were genotype 1a, and 43 patients were genotype 3a, and 1 patient was genotype 2a. Evaluation of biochemical markers in patients with genotype 1a and 3a showed that there were significant differences in cholesterol (p = 0.001), LDL (p = 0.001) and HDL (p= 0.003) levels, but there were no significant differences in liver enzymes and TG levels in both genotypes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In the present study, we found significant difference in biochemical markers between HCV patients and controls. In HCV patients, the biochemical markers were dependent on HCV genotypes, and their levels in genotype 1a were higher than genotype 3a. In conclusion, biochemical markers are one of the most important factors for the identification of treatment.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##