Biomedical Research and Therapy 2018-07-19T16:08:08+00:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems Disparity and trends in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in the world 2018-07-19T16:08:08+00:00 Mahdi Mohammadian Hamid Salehiniya Azam Safari Khadijah Allah Bakeshei Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lung Cancer (LC) is one of the most common cancers in the international arena. The aim of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution of LC incidence and mortality in the world in 2012, as well as the trend of incidence and mortality of LC during 1975 to 2010 based on the gender.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In the present study, we extracted the information on the incidence and mortality of LC in 184 countries from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (Project GLOBOCAN, 2012). The present study categorized and presented the information on the Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASIR) and Age Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) of LC based on the continents, world regions based on the development level and Human Development Index (HDI). ASIR and ASMR of LC expressed per 100,000 people.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The highest ASIR and ASMR of LC occurred in North America (ASIR=38.3 and ASMR=28.6), more developed regions (ASIR=30.8 and ASMR=24.2), and the WPRO region of the WHO (ASIR=32.8 and ASMR=28.5), and those regions with very high HDI (ASIR=31 and ASMR=23.9). Furthermore, the lowest ASIR and ASMR of LC occurred in Africa (ASIR=5 and ASMR=4.5), the less developed regions (ASIR=20 and ASMR=18), the AFRO region (ASIR=3.9 and ASMR=3.5), and regions with low HDI (ASIR=5.4 and ASMR=4.8).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The highest ASIR and ASMR of LC occurred in North America, more developed regions, and the WPRO region of the WHO, and those regions with very high HDI. Most regions of the world had decreasing incidence and mortality of LC in men and increasing trend in women.</p> 2018-06-23T00:29:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A review of the most effective medicinal plants for dermatophytosis in traditional medicine 2018-07-19T16:08:03+00:00 Asghar Sepahvand Hossein Eliasy Mehdi Mohammadi Ali Safarzadeh Kimia Azarbaijani Somayeh Shahsavari Mohsen Alizadeh Fatemeh Beyranvand <p>Fungi can evade the immune system via different processes, including recombination, mitosis, and expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses. These processes can lead to chronic fungal diseases. Despite the growth of health care facilities, the incidence rate of fungal infections is still considerably high. Dermatophytes represent the main cause of cutaneous diseases. Dermatophytes attack keratinized tissues, such as nail, hair, and stratum corneum, due of their gravitation towards keratin, which leads to dermatophytosis. Medicinal plants have long been used to treat different diseases, and in the recent years, use of plant-based products to fight fungal, bacterial, and parasitic infections have attracted extensive attention. This is because the use of medicinal plants has many advantages, such as decreased costs and fewer side effects. This review article was conducted to report medicinal plants with anti-dermatophytosis properties. Seventy-six articles were retrieved from databases Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. After exclusion of duplicate and irrelevant articles, 54 articles were selected. Of the remaining articles, 23 articles were screened and included in this study. According to the findings, <em>Azadirachta indica, Capparis spinosa, Anagallisarvensis, Juglans regia, Inula viscosa, Phagnalon rupestre, Plumbago europaea, Ruscus aculeatus, Ruta chalepensis, Salvia fruticosa, Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, Teucrium polium, Aegle marmelos, Artemisia sieberi, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Mentha spicata, Nigella sativa, </em>and<em> Rosmarinus officinalis</em> are the most effective plants against dermatophytes which have been identified to date.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-06-28T00:28:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of an oral dosage form made from Fumaria vaillantii versus cetirizinein management of chronic urticaria: A single-blind, randomized, clinical trial 2018-07-19T16:08:04+00:00 Fatemeh Eghbalian Nafiseh Esmaili Mehrdad Karimi Fahimeh Mohajerani Roja Rahimi Akramosadat Atyabi Hamid Reza Tohidinik Laila Shirbeigi <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>: Chronic urticaria (CU) is one of the common allergic diseases whose conventional treatments have failed to desirably manage it. Fumariavaillantii is used in Persian medicine to treat CU. The anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic effects of chemical components of Fumaria such as fumaric acid and caffeic acid were confirmed. Dimethyl fumarate reduces the pro- inflammatory contribution and monomethyl fumarate can increase IL-4, an antiinflammatory interleukin, or can decrease IFN- , an inflammatory factor. The current study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of Fumaria vaillantii versus cetirizine in the management of CU.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong>: The formulation and standardization of Fumaria syrup were done in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients were randomized to twice- daily treatment with Fumaria syrup or cetirizine syrup (n=39 in each group) for four weeks. The efficacy assessment included Urticaria Activity Score (UAS) and Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CUQ2oL) and the safety evaluations included Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: The fumaric acid content in 5 ml of Fumaria syrup was calculated to be 0.12 mg. The results of clinical trial showed that UAS was significantly higher in the Fumaria group than in the cetirizine group, after the first week of follow-up (p&lt;0.001), but no significant difference was demonstrated between the two groups on week 4 (p=0.57). One month after the research was finished, the UAS score of the cetirizine group was significantly higher than that of the Fumaria group (p&lt;0.001). After finishing the interventions, difference of CU-Q2oL was not significant between the two groups; however, the QOL score was significantly lower in the Fumaria group (p&lt;0.001) at 8th week. About adverse events, the incidence of somnolence in the Fumaria group was significantly lower than in the cetirizine group (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: Fumaria vaillantii demonstrated its effects on CU later than cetirizine, but led to more permanent effects, better quality of life, and lower incidence of adverse events as compared to cetirizine. More clinical trials with higher populations are needed to achieve more conclusive results.</p> 2018-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluating Hemato_4 (HCT), Hemato_5 (PLAT 1000), Hemato_9 (MCHC), and Biochem_20 (Alkaline Phosphatase) as biomarkers and possible mediators of the relationship between Xerosis and Sulfur Mustard 2018-07-19T16:08:02+00:00 Marjan Zare Zaher Khazaei Soghrat Faghihzadeh Shohreh Jalaie Malihe Sohrabivafa <p><strong>Background</strong>: Estimating total, direct, and indirect effects of causal variables on outcome variables can be done through proposed mediator guides on causal pathways. This can improve the efficiency of diagnostic efforts done by clinicians. In this study, the relationship between Sulfur Mustard and Xerosis was investigated, specifically with respect to the role of Hemato_4, Hemato_5, Hemato_9, and Biochem_20 biomarkers as mediators.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Results</strong>: This was a historical cohort study (in Sardasht, Iran) which consisted of 492 subjects; 129 subjects were not exposed to Mustard Gas (control group) and 363 subjects were exposed to it (case group). Mediation models along with bootstrap method were used to evaluate the mediator validity of Hemato_4, Hemato_5, Hemato_9, and Biochem_20 on the relationship between Sulfur Mustard and Xerosis. The direct effects of Sulfur Mustard, via Hemato_4 and Hemato_9, on Xerosis were also significant (P&lt;0.05 for each). However, there was no significant effects mediated by Hemato_5 or Biochem_20 (P&gt;0.05 for each). While there were non-significant indirect effects of Sulfur Mustard on Xerosis by these latter biomarkers (P&gt;0.05 for each), the first two biomarkers were, indeed, partial mediators.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sulfur Mustard can affect Xerosis through several single immune biomarker. However, as an intervention, sulfur mustard should affect several biomarkers through various mechanisms. Therefore, effects through multiple mediators, instead of single ones, may be more rational in the treatment strategy for xerosis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of vascular diseases on bioimpedance measurements: mathematical modeling 2018-07-19T16:08:00+00:00 Yomna H. Shash Mohamed A. A. Eldosoky Mohamed T. Elwakad <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The non-invasive nature of bioimpedance technique is the reason for the adoption of this technique in the wide field of bio-research. This technique is useful in the analysis of a variety of diseases and has many advantages. Cardiovascular diseases are the most dangerous diseases leading to death in many regions of the world. Vascular diseases are disorders that affect the arteries and veins. Most often, vascular diseases have greater impacts on the blood flow, either by narrowing or blocking the vessel lumen or by weakening the vessel wall. The most common vascular diseases are atherosclerosis, wall swelling (aneurysm), and occlusion. Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by the deposition of plaques on the inner vessel wall, while a mural aneurysm is formed as a result of wall weakness. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vascular diseases on vessel impedance. Furthermore, this study aimed to develop the measurement of vessel abnormalities as a novel method based on the bioimpedance phenomenon.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Mathematical models were presented to describe the impedance of vessels in different vascular cases. In addition, a 3D model of blood vessels was simulated by COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS.5, and the impedance was measured at each vascular condition.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The simulation results clarify that the vascular disorders (stenosis, blockage or aneurysm) have significant impact on the vessel impedance, and thus they can be detected by using the bio-impedance analysis. Moreover, using frequencies in KHz range is preferred in detecting vascular diseases since it has the ability to differentiate between the healthy and diseased blood vessel. Finally, the results can be improved by selecting an appropriate electrodes configuration for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: From this work, it can be concluded that bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has the ability to detect vascular diseases. Furthermore, the proposed mathematical models are successful at describing different cases of vascular disorders.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Complete response of Palbociclib in metastatic breast cancer patient: A case report 2018-07-19T16:08:06+00:00 Mehrdad Payandeh Edris Sadeghi Masoud Sadeghi Mehrnoush Aeinfar Saba Yari <p>Palbociclib, an oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK 4/6), has been approved for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative. The study reported the efficacy of Palbociclib as a new oral drug in a patient with mBC. A 40-year-old female with stage 2 right BC change to stage 4 after about two years later referred to oncology clinic. Due to HR-positivity/HER2-negative, she has treated with Palbociclib 125 mg (per one day for twoweek and one-week intervals) with Letrozole. In new assessment and after 8 months of this oral combination therapy, the chest x-ray of lung showed the complete response. Treatment with Palbociclib plus Letrozole had a complete response in the mBC patient after the common chemotherapies and hormone monotherapy.</p> 2018-06-23T16:04:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral manifestation and dental management in a patient with chronic graft versus host disease with around a 10-year follow-up 2018-07-19T16:08:05+00:00 Hamid Reza Mozaffari Masoud Sadeghi Ladan Jamshidy Neda Omidpanah Mohammad Shooriabi Hedaiat Moradpoor Roohollah Sharifi <p>Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complex entity and major complication following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This study was the first to report oral manifestation and dental management in a patient with cGVHD after allo-HSCT with a longterm follow-up. A 40-year-old man referred to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine with complaints of tongue burning, mouth dryness, and ulcers. He had chronic myelogenous leukemia and had undergone allo-HSCT. The patient had undergone treatment with several sessions of extracorporeal photopheresis. The GVHD complications had started about nine months after HSCT. In conclusion, the dentist should play a role in the local therapy of cases with oral manifestation and dental management of cGVHD. Controlling the GVHD can reduce oral and dental alterations, increase the improvement of the quality of life, and reduce the need for more intensive immunosuppressive systemic therapies.</p> 2018-06-23T16:43:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##