Biomedical Research and Therapy 2023-01-01T20:58:40+00:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems Reprogramming macrophages toward M1-like phenotypes in the breast cancer microenvironment using mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: A review 2022-12-31T21:10:59+00:00 Nur Ramziahrazanah Jumat Muhammad Amir Yunus Badrul Hisham Yahaya Rafeezul Mohamed <p>Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide and is the type of cancer with the most frequent high mortality rate for women in 110 countries. Treatment methods offered can have both short- and long-term effects on mobility, function, and quality of life. Improvement in treatment is essential to increase the survival rate and life expectancy. Macrophages in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment (TME) are known as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and are the most common leukocyte population in mammary cancer. TAMs exhibit a phenotype similar to that of M2-like macrophages and secrete a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors, such as CCL2, CCL18, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF, which are involved in cancer progression and metastasis and trigger drug resistance during cancer therapies. Hence, high infiltration of TAMs in breast cancer patients is closely associated with a poor clinical prognosis. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated by various studies to modulate immunomodulatory responses and reprogramming of TAMs to M1-like macrophages. MSCs skew naïve macrophages to a proinflammatory M1-like polarized state, which can alter the TME landscape. Hence, reprogramming TAMS to an M1-like phenotype with MSCs is a good strategy to enhance commonly used immunotherapies for the improvement of clinical outcomes among cancer patients. This present review discusses the potential of targeting TAMs by reprogramming macrophages using MSCs to increase antitumor responses in breast cancer.</p> 2022-12-31T21:10:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for wound healing: An update to 2022 2023-01-01T02:13:37+00:00 Phat Duc Huynh Quynh Xuan Tran Sao Thi Nguyen Vy Quang Nguyen Ngoc Bich Vu <p>The skin is an organ that performs complex functions of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. It serves as the first physical barrier to protect the body from environmental factors. Skin also carries aesthetic value in people's desire for eternal youth. Skin lesions are often unwanted, causing open wounds that can be contagious or permit infection of the body, scars, skin aging, and loss of skin function, with long-term psychological consequences. The application of stem cell therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is constantly developing in the field of skin regeneration, which is highly regarded as a therapy for patients suffering skin lesions from burns, deep wounds, cosmetic surgery, or genetic diseases. MSC therapy has shed light on groundbreaking treatments in immune, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative medicine, including for skin diseases. Additionally, the development of stem cells seems to limit skin aging. It is gradually becoming an integral technique at hospitals as a regular therapy for illness, as well as a cosmetic intervention. This review seeks to introduce the skin system and its related disorders; highlight the common characteristics and mechanisms of MSCs; and analyze updated clinical applications and experiments to date in MSC therapy for regenerative biomedicine and skin diseases.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Cancer: Success versus Limitations 2023-01-01T09:04:33+00:00 Amit Sarder Md. Babu Mia Antara Sarkar Chanchal Mandal <p>The immune system possesses the capability to identify tumor cells and eradicate early malignant tumor cells. Thus, activating the immune system of cancer patients provides great therapeutic benefits. Inhibitory T-cell immune checkpoints play a vital role in tumor immune escape. Thus, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have attracted attention in cancer immunotherapy. In ICI therapy, the therapeutic targets are the expressed immune checkpoints of T cells. Immune checkpoints induce T-cell dysfunction in cancer. However, ICIs or immunomodulators restore the antitumor actions of cytotoxic T cells by blocking immune checkpoints. ICIs have become desirable treatment options because of their broad range of activities and response rates ranging from 15% to 90% in several cancer types. Generally, ICIs also have favorable toxicity profiles. This paper will first delve deeper into the best-known immune checkpoints and then review ICIs that are attractive treatment options in immunotherapy.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tualang honey-mediated silver nanoparticles attenuate hippocampal oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced male rats 2023-01-01T20:58:40+00:00 Hidani Hasim Sirajudeen Kuttulebbai Naina Mohamed Salam Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao Sangu Muthuraju Mohd Asnizam Asari <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Kainic acid (KA) has been widely used to study the mechanism of excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration and to investigate neurodegenerative therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tualang honey-mediated silver nanoparticles (THSN) against oxidative stress in the hippocampus of KA-induced rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 72) were randomized into six groups: i) control, ii) THSN 10 mg, iii) THSN 50 mg, iv) KA only, v) THSN 10 mg + KA, and vi) THSN 50 mg + KA. The animals were administered distilled water or THSN (10 or 50 mg/kg), according to their respective groups, five times at 12 h intervals before being injected subcutaneously with saline or KA (15 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and 5 days of KA induction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitrate/nitrite (NOx), protein carbonyl (PCO), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), and catalase (CAT) activity in the hippocampal tissue were measured using commercially available ELISA kits.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: THSN pre-treatments significantly improved oxidative status in the hippocampus by decreasing the MDA, NOx, and PCO levels while increasing the levels of GSH, TAS, and CAT activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: THSN attenuated the KA-induced oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus through its antioxidant effects.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Case report of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis 2023-01-01T07:40:32+00:00 Le Viet Dung Nguyen Ngoc Cuong Ma Mai Hien Le Tuan Linh Doan Tien Luu Thieu-Thi Tra My Nguyen Minh Duc <p>Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a chronic disease caused by the human papillomavirus and can affect both children and adults. Although it is a benign disease, papilloma growth can cause severe, sometimes life-threatening airway obstruction. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient who was admitted to the hospital with a fever and prolonged cough. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed solid and cavitated nodules in his right lung and solid nodules on his vocal cords. Bronchoscopy demonstrated polypoid lesions on his vocal cords. Histopathological study of the lesions confirmed a diagnosis of respiratory papillomatosis.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##