Biomedical Research and Therapy 2020-08-08T13:56:39+00:00 Lili Hami Open Journal Systems Comparative cytotoxic effects of methanol, ethanol and DMSO on human cancer cell lines 2020-08-08T13:56:38+00:00 Sinh Truong Nguyen Huyen Thi-Lam Nguyen Kiet Dinh Truong <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Anti-tumor drug screening is the most popular technique in drug discovery. In this technique, various agents were tested for their cytotoxicity on cell lines, particularly cancer cell lines. Since most of these agents are weakly soluble in water, they can be normally dissolved in lipophilic solvents. To obtain accurate results, the requirement of these solvents are that they be biocompatible and non-toxic to cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of the three agents most commonly used as drug vehicles, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol and methanol, using cell proliferation measurement techniques.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: To minimize the errors from the measurement techniques, this study used the xCelligence RTCA system which entails real-time monitoring of cell proliferation without dye labeling. Under the wide range concentration of solvents (from 0% to 100% of solvents by serial dilutions), the cell index (CI) and slope of cell proliferation curves of HepG2, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and VNBRCA1 cell lines were analyzed (by the software provided by the xCelligence system).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that DMSO had a significant toxicity and inhibition of proliferation on 4 cell lines, at the concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25% (p&amp;lt;0.0001). Methanol and ethanol inhibited cellular proliferation at the concentrations of 10% and 5% (p&amp;lt;0.0001). The concentrations of ethanol and methanol ranging from 2.5% to 0.15% concentration were well-tolerated by cells with respect to proliferation. Depending on the extracts or agents, each should be diluted in the suitable vehicle at the proper concentrations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ethanol and methanol are good choices for solvents since they have low toxicity on HepG2, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and VNBRCA1 cell lines. However, in the case of agents only dissolvable in DMSO, low concentrations of DMSO from 0.6%-0.015% should be considered.</p> 2020-07-29T04:21:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamics of the microbiological scope and antibiotic susceptibility in intensive care unit patients 2020-08-08T13:56:39+00:00 Kostiv Olga Yakymchuk Elena Kostiv Sviatoslav Dmytriiev Dmytro Dmytriiev Kostiantyn <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: This study addresses and evaluates the decrease of antibiotic resistance after introduction of a proposed prevention plan and control complex in the intensive care unit (ICU).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data from 1,111 bacteriological analyses, taken from patients who received treatment in the ICU of Ternopil University Hospital from January to August 2015 (group 1) and the same period of 2018 (group II), were included in the study. The complex included measures for the prevention of antibiotic resistance spread and for rational antibiotic use.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that resistance to imipenem changed more than other antibacterial drugs, increased by 60% (р ≤ 0.05), which was conditioned predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates for 100%. A decrease in 39% of polyresistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients of groups I and II showed important prognostic value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A complex of the proposed measures included the division of patients in blocks according to the risk of infectious complications, control of antibiotics administration, adherence to sanitary norms by ICU staff, use of sodium hypochlorite resulting in decrease of pathogenic isolates, and level of antibiotic resistance to specific groups of antibacterial drugs.</p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19 around the world and the Chinese strategy to cope with SARS-CoV-2 2020-08-08T13:56:36+00:00 Muhammad Adnan Shereen Hafiz Ullah Suliman Khan Nadia Bashir Abeer Kazmi Kainat Saif Muhammad Suhaib Qudus <p>SARS-CoV-2, a zoonotic virus, emerged in China causes Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Senior citizens and people with co-infections, genetic diseases, immune-compromised states, and cardiovascular diseases are at higher risk. There is no approved vaccine or drug available to treat COVID-19, although a few antivirals, interferon, and other drugs have reduced viral load in infected patients. However, these drugs have not been significantly effective in European countries. More than 40 different strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected in various parts of the world; they might have adapted themselves to the environmental conditions and have become resistant to therapeutic strategies. Many developed and developing countries are facing shortages of surgical masks and other protection tools. So far, the strategies developed by Chinese authorities have efficiently mitigated the SARS-CoV-2 transmission and limited mortality rate to less than 4%, with more than 78,000 people recovered from COVID-19. This review article highlights the pandemic conditions in different parts of the world, as well as possible reasons behind minimal COVID-19 infections and the high mortality rates. It will discuss information about China’s strategies to cope with SARS-CoV-2 which can help other countries to mitigate viral spread and infection.</p> 2020-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Safety assessment of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) fruit from Nigeria 2020-08-08T13:56:35+00:00 Raphael Chukwuma Ekeanyanwu Nnaemeka Emmanuel Mgbedo Alvan Tochukwu Njoku <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica fruits have been reported to possess numerous biochemical effects. However, no toxicological data is available regarding the safety evaluation of the essential oils from the plant spice. The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of essential oils from X. aethiopica (XAEO) fruit by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies in experimental rodents.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In assessing the safety of XAEO, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests were performed following OECD guidelines 425 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood was performed. Histopathological examination of vital organs of the animals was conducted for gross findings and for comparison to controls.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In acute oral toxicity, signs of toxicity were observed in the initial period of the experiment which culminated in the death of the mice before the end of the experiment. The sub-acute test observations indicated that generally, there were no significant differences (p&amp;lt;0.05) up to the high dose level compared to the controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study demonstrated the tolerability of XAEO administered daily for 28 days up to 450 mg/kg dose.</p> 2020-07-31T14:13:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves favorably alters the course of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats: A comparative prospective cohort study 2020-08-08T13:56:37+00:00 Obiajulu C. Ezeigwe Francis C. Ezeonu Chukwudi O. Okani Daniel N. Onwusulu Maryclare E. Onuegbu <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Azadirachta indica (neem) is one of the plants commonly used in African traditional medicine for the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of A. indica leaves on hematology, lipid profile and organ-system function of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 120 and 150 g, were randomly divided into 6 groups (A-F) and used for the study. Group A was used as a healthy normal control. Groups B-F were induced with diabetes using 50 mg/kg bodyweight (bw.) of streptozotocin. Group B was diabetic untreated; Group C was treated with 100 mg/kg bw. metformin; Groups D to F were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw. of the aqueous extract, respectively. The treatment was carried out daily for a period of 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, the hematological parameters were analyzed using auto haematology analyser. Lipid profiles and histopathological investigations were performed using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results obtained showed that aqueous extract of A. indica significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and platelet count of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared with those of the diabetic-untreated rats. The mean hemoglobin concentrations for groups A, B, C, D, E and F were 11.78, 8.200, 15.18, 13.88, 14.03 and 14.93, respectively. Treatment with the graded doses of the aqueous extract of A. indica significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein, compared with those of the diabetic-untreated control. Treatment also significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), compared with that of the control. The mean HDL-c concentration for groups A, B, C, D, E and F were 49.58, 29.79, 40.89, 38.53, 40.40 and 46.54, respectively. The histopathological studies showed regeneration of the pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, brain and lungs for the groups treated with the extract, compared with the diabetic-untreated animals that revealed severe damage to the organ-system functions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results suggest that the aqueous extract of A. indica can be considered as an excellent remedy for diabetes and a substitute for drugs to reduce complications associated with diabetic conditions.</p> 2020-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##