Biomedical Research and Therapy http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT <p>Biomedical Research and Therapy (ISSN 2198-4093)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is the major forum for basic and translational research into therapies. An international peer-reviewed journal, it publishes high quality open access research articles with a special emphasis on basic, translational and clinical research into molecular therapeutics and cellular therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. The journal also provides reviews, viewpoints, commentaries and reports.&nbsp;Biomedical Research and Therapy's Editorial Policies follow the recommendations of the <a href="http://www.icmje.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a>, <a href="http://www.wame.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)</a>, and&nbsp;<a href="http://publicationethics.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a> for guidance on policies and procedures related to publication ethics.&nbsp;The journal is published monthly, <em><strong>12 issues</strong></em> per year.</p> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="http://www.biomedpress.org/" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Outcome analysis of acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with high dose daunorubicin http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/562 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a malignant hematopoietic disease caused by the presence of a malignant clone in the bone marrow. The classic AML treatment includes a combination of an Anthracycline and Cytarabine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high doses of Daunorubicin on patients' outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: During the study period, 16 AML patients received induction therapy with Cytarabine (100 mg/m2/d) for 7 days and Daunorubicin (90 mg/m2/d) for 3 days. Outcome analysis was performed to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) during 2 years of study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of patients was 38+/-12.38 years, with the age range between 16 and 54 years old. Seven patients (43.8%) were females, and 9 cases (56.3%) were males. OS was 81.3%, with a mean of 396.88 days. (95% CI: 306.99-486.77). DFS was 83.3%, with a mean of 383.57 days (95% CI: 299.88-467.26). The log-rank test showed a significant difference in DFS of AML sub-types, as M1 subtypes had lower DFS (P log-rank= 0.013). Although M1 subtypes had a lower OS, there was no significant difference in OS between subgroups (P log-rank= 0.067).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although disease-free survival was improved by increasing the dose of daunorubicin, there was no difference in the overall survival between the AML subgroups and sexes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Roya Dolatkhah Effat Irani Jam Alireza Nikanfar Ali Esfahani Sayed Hadi Chavooshi Babak Nejati Zohreh Sanaat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 6 9 3347 3351 10.15419/bmrat.v6i9.562 title description none g The effect of Phaseolus vulgaris pods extract on cytokines profile in the condition of alkali burn esophagus 2 degree http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/563 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: As a result of alkaline substances entering the esophagus wall, necrosis occurs, as well as destruction of the mucous, submucosal and muscular layers of the esophagus. The cellular immune system plays an important role in regulating the various phases of the wound healing process, during which, depending on the time and through specific adhesion interactions, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes penetrate the site of the trauma and lead to an intensive proliferation of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes. The substances of natural origins based on polyphenolic compounds are possible as a remedy for the normalization of physiological and biochemical parameters in a condition of various pathologies. <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> pods extract (PVPE) are an example of a rich source of bioactive compounds with proven human health benefits. Our results revealed imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in esophageal homogenates in rats with alkali burn of esophagus II degree, which can indicate a prolonged inflammation in the burned area. In the groups of animals with the alkaline burn of the esophagus, that were injected extract there can be traced a change of the indicators in the direction of normalization, indicating about the therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of pods of <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The cellular immune system plays an important role in regulating the various phases of the wound healing process, and can be used as a marker of pathological post-burn wound healing, <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> pods extract (PVPE) are an example of a rich source of bioactive compounds with proven human health benefits. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in cytokines levels in rat esophageal supernatants in the condition of alkali burn esophagus second degree (AEB 2) and treatment with <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> pods extract.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: The animals were experimentally simulated with the alkali esophageal burn with 20% (grade II) solvent of NaOH. Levels of cytokines in esophageal tissue homogenates were done by ELISA.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the present study, we investigate the imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in esophageal homogenates in rats with AEB 2, which can indicate a prolonged inflammation in the burned area. In the groups of animals with the AEB 2, that were injected extract there can be traced a change of the indicators in the direction of normalization.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The administration of the extract, in conditions of alkaline burn of the esophagus, contributes change of the indicators in the direction of normalization indicating the therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of pods of <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yana Raetska Viktor Dmytryk Nataliia Chornenka Tetiana Halenova Nataliia Raksha Tetiana Vovk Olexiy Savchuk Ludmila Ostapchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 6 9 3352 3358 10.15419/bmrat.v6i9.563 title description none g Evaluation of body weight, serum glucose level and oxidative stress parameters of diabetic rats administered phenolic aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/564 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The present study evaluated the effect of phenolic aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana on body weight, serum glucose and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: DM was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH = 7.4). A total of 36 adult male Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats. The groups consist of normal untreated rats, untreated DM rats, DM rats treated with 500 mg/kg dimethylguanide (MetforminTM) and DM rats treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of phenolic aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana. The rats were treated for 28 days. Serum glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid concentrations, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured using standard methods. The changes in body weight was also measured.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed a significant reduction (p &lt; 0.05) in serum glucose and MDA concentration, whereas serum SOD, CAT activities, as well as GSH and ascorbic acid concentration were significantly elevated (p &lt; 0.05) in treated DM groups in a dose dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of the present study indicated that phenolic aqueous leaf extract of V. doniana promoted increased body weight, ameliorated DM and alleviated reduced antioxidant activities in alloxan-induced DM rats. Phenolic aqueous leaf extract of V. doniana could serve as a potential natural and safe remedy for the management of DM.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Emmanuel Obasi Kizito Iheanacho Ngwu Nwachukwu Nc Agha Paul Chidoka Chikezie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-21 2019-09-21 6 9 3359 3367 10.15419/bmrat.v6i9.564 title description none g Toxicological evaluation of the nicotine on CA1 and protective effects of curcuma longa: An experimental study http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/565 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Nicotine is the most important alkaloid compound in tobacco and is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorders of several organ systems. Some plants produce Curcuma longa (curcumin), which has antioxidant and neuro-protective properties.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of curcumin against nicotine injury on the hippocampus CA1 region of rats. In this study, 48 male rats were randomly assigned to eight groups: Normal control (saline) group, Nicotine control group (0.5 mg/kg); Curcumin groups (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and Nicotine + Curcumin groups (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intra-peritoneally daily for 28 days. Golgi staining technique investigated the number of dendritic spines. Cresyl violet staining method was used to determine the number of neurons in the hippocampal region CA1. Griess technique was assessed to determine serum nitrite oxide levels. Also, the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) method was applied to determine the total antioxidant capacity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Nicotine administration significantly increased the nitrite oxide level and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The number of neuronal dendritic spines, as well as neurons per se, also decreased, compared to the control group (p &lt; 0.01). In all the members of the Curcumin and Nicotine + Curcumin groups, the number of neurons, neuronal dendritic spines and total antioxidant capacity increased significantly compared to the nicotine control group, while nitrite oxide level decreased significantly compared to the nicotine control group (p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It seems that Curcumin administration improved hippocampal CA1 region injury in rats caused by Nicotine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Shiva Roshankhah Babak Arji Roudsari Cyrus Jalili ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 6 9 3368 3378 10.15419/bmrat.v6i9.565 title description none g Physiological and behavioral study on depressed rats model treated with Hordeum vulgare extract referenced to SSRI class http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/566 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of <em>Hordeum vulgare</em> aqueous extract (HVE) in a sub-chronic depression rat model.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into five groups: the first group served as a control group; the second group received i.p. injection of reserpine (Res) (0.5 mg/ kg) for 20 days, the third group received i.p. injection of reserpine plus fluoxetine (Res + Flux) (10 mg/kg p.o.) for 20 days, the fourth group received i.p. injection of Res plus HVE (1,000 mg/kg p.o.), and the fifth group received Res + Flus +HVE. Behavioral tests were measured on the 21<sup>st</sup> day of the experiment, then rats were decapitated to determine liver function [alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, TP, Alb, Glob, A/G), brain monoamines and their metabolites (NE, DA, 5-HT, HVA, DOPAC, 5HIAA), oxidative and nitrositive stress markers (MDA, glutathione, oxidized glutathione, NO, SOD, 8OHdG) and purinergic cell capacity (ATP, ADP, AMP).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Obtained data showed neuro-degenerative effect of Res and deteriorative manifestation in liver function. Moreover, flux treatment showed an attenuated deterioration, manifested by Res for monoamines and its metabolites, and subsequently stabilized behaviors and decreased depression status with behavioral tests indicators. On the other hand, it showed initial indicators of liver alteration, presented by serum liver function and histological examination. In addition, treatment with HVE showed amelioration for behavioral, neurochemical functions, and decreased oxidative stress. The results were confirmed by the histological examination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: HVE ameliorate depression induced by Res, stimulates monoamines and antioxidant status, decrease oxidonitrositive markers and increases cell energy capacity without side effects on liver, contrasting to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, which produces initial indicators of liver damages.</p> Kadry A. Elbakry A. Elbakry Elbakry Naema Ibolgasm Alazabi Nahed M. Omer Mohamed H. Bahnasawy Omar Abdel-Hamed Ahmed-Farid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-29 2019-09-29 6 9 3379 3390 10.15419/bmrat.v6i9.566 title description none g