Biomedical Research and Therapy http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT <div class="slider-container"> <h2>Featured Articles</h2> <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" style="height: 300px; padding: 50px;" data-ride="carousel"><!-- Indicators --> <!-- FEATURED ARTICLES CONTENT HERE --> <div class="carousel-inner"> <div class="item active"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/287">Concise review: Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells as cellular therapy </a> <div>Recently, new methods have been developed to isolate and enrich EVs with high performance and low-toxicity. Thus, EVs have emerged as the new generation of stem cell therapy. This concise review aims to highlight some recent achievements of EVs in preclinical and clinical applications.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/198">Association between SNP rs9485372 in TAB2 gene and breast cancer risk 
in Vietnamese women </a> <div>Our finding thus suggested that this SNP is not significantly associated with breast cancer in Vietnamese women. However, the power of this study is quite low at only 4.46% that was partly caused by a small sample size. Hence, a further study needs to be conducted with a larger sample size in the future to confirm the association of this SNP with breast cancer in Vietnamese women.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/178">Up-to-date clinical approaches of biomarkers’ use in heart failure</a> <div>Heart failure (HF) is considered a leading cause of death in patients with established cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases. Although current treatment strategy has improved survival rate and clinical outcomes of HF, the HF prevalence exhibits growth especially in older patients’ population and survivors after coronary atherothrombotic events. Current clinical guidelines regarding treatment and prevention of HF claim the role of biological markers as pretty easy and powerful tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognostication of HF.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/179">Comparative treatment efficiency of adipose and bone marrow derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in mouse models of liver fibrosis </a> <div>After 21 days of transplantation, the results showed that the stem cell treated groups ameliorated better than the placebo group. MSC treated groups showed reduced AST and ALT levels, down-regulated expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, and improved liver histopathology. Both sources of MSCs (bone marrow and adipose tissue) were effective in the mouse model of liver fibrosis.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/182">Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study </a> <div>The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58) by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58) by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45) by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/203">Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate and its Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as antipsychotic drug in rat model of schizophrenia </a> <div>QFSLN treatment showed enhanced effect over QF in a dose-dependent manner with minimal side effects in schizophrenic rats. In addition, immunohistochemical examinations of brain tissues confirmed the biochemical data.</div> </div> </div> <!-- Left and right controls --> <p><a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="prev"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-left"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span> <span class="sr-only">Previous</span> </a> <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="next"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-right"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span><span class="sr-only">Next</span> </a></p> </div> </div> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="http://www.biomedpress.org/" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Erythropoietin and treatment of cancer-associated malignant anemia http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/430 <p>Cancer anemia, which is known as the malignant anemia associated with cancer, is one of the clinical symptoms of cancer and occurs in about half of cancer patients. Malignant tumor anemia is a common complication in various malignant tumors. In this anemia, the destruction of red blood cells leads to a decrease in access of tissues to oxygen leading to a reduced sensitivity of tumors to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and thus reduced quality of life in patients, reduced survival time and impact on the cancer prognosis. So, that the mortality rate in patients with anemia is two times higher than the patients without anemia during three years after diagnosis of cancer. Despite the fact that some studies have found that erythropoietin may improve symptoms of cancer-related anemia, this issue is still controversial in scientific literature and sessions.</p> Khadijah Allah Bakeshei Hamid Salehiniya Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-18 2018-04-18 5 4 2171 2173 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.430 title description none g Tobacco Smoking and Cancer Types: A Review http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/428 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Tobacco smoking is one of the causes of the incidence and mortality of cancer in the world. This study aimed to review the relationship between TS and especially the use of cigarettes with common cancers of various organs of the body.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was&nbsp; conducted&nbsp; in&nbsp; English by November 2017 through a search in databases of the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. The search strategy included the key words "cancer", "tobacco smoke", "tobacco smoke", and "smoking." Articles that looked at the relationship between each type of cancer and smoking were entered into the study and summarized in Review.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, Upper aerodigestive tract<strong>, </strong>esophagus, stomach, bladder, kidneys, colorectal, prostate, and pancreas. However, further studies are needed to confirm the association between Tobacco smoking and liver, cervical, brain, gallbladder, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and hematologic malignancies. However, Tobacco smoking plays a protective role in the development of thyroid cancers, skin and Kaposi’s sarcoma.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Given that almost all of the risk factors for most cancers are Tobacco smoking, increasing the public’s awareness of the harmful effects of smoking, implementing programs and policies to&nbsp; reduce smoking, can lead to a reduction in smoking and consequently reduce&nbsp; the&nbsp; resulting&nbsp; harmful &nbsp;consequences.</p> Yousef Khani Nima Pourgholam-Amiji Mohammad Afshar Omid Otroshi Mehran Sharifi-Esfahani Hamidreza Sadeghi-Gandomani Marjan Vejdani Hamid Salehiniya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-16 2018-04-16 5 4 2142 2159 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.428 title description none g Evaluation of the effects of saffron aqueous extract on oxidative stress in the lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/427 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Multiple-organ failure is the main cause of disability and death in diabetes mellitus. Imbalance in oxidative status is responsible for major diabetic complications and multiple-organ failure including blindness. Recently, plants with potential antioxidant properties have been used to manage hyperglycemia in diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the beneficial effects of saffron aqueous extract (SAE) administration in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by evaluation of oxidative stress parameters in the eye lens.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty-two adult rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (I), saffron control (II), diabetic control (III), and saffron treated (IV). Diabetes was induced in animals by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). Three days after STZ administration, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose. At this time, groups II and IV were treated with SAE (200 mg/kg body weight) for a total of 5 doses, and then weekly from the 7th day after STZ injection. At the end of study, fasting blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined in the lens tissues.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In addition to the effects of SAE on blood glucose, SAE was effective on the enzymatic antioxidant defense system. The level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) decreased while there was an increase in the levels of MDA in the lens tissues of diabetic control rats, as compared to normal control rats. SAE could be modulating the changes in these parameters that are induced by diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of the present study demonstrate that SAE is able to control blood glucose and thus may be useful in delaying the complicated effects of diabetes, such as clouding of the eyes’ lens due to the antioxidant effect of SAE.</p> Sara Talebanzadeh Mahboobeh Ashrafi Nasrin Kazemipour Hoda Erjaee Saeed Nazifi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-16 2018-04-16 5 4 2133 2141 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.427 title description none g Insertion / Deletion Polymorphism of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Does Not Contribute to Chronic Kidney Disease in Palestine http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/429 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is progressive kidney damage in which the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases by 15% of that performed by normal kidneys, with the result that the kidneys are no longer to function effectively and this condition is treated with either kidney transplantation or dialysis. Hemodialysis (HD) is a process in which the blood passes through a machine (dialyzer) to remove waste. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is one of the major components of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) that is responsible for blood pressure regulation. Insertion/Deletion I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repeat sequence in introns 16 of the <em>ACE</em> gene results in three genotypes <em>I/D</em>,<em> D/D</em> and <em>I/I</em>. The aims of this study were to evaluate <em>ACE</em> genotypes and allele frequency among HD patients and control subjects and to examine the association between <em>ACE</em> genotypes with HD risk.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective case-control study included 186 subjects, 86 HD patients and 100 healthy individuals as a control. EDTA whole blood samples were collected from all participants for <em>DNA</em> extraction, and the <em>ACE</em> gene polymorphism was analyzed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Additionally, all individuals were requested to complete the questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The initial results demonstrated that the <em>D/D</em> genotype was the most common genotype in all subjects and the association between <em>ACE</em> genotypes with HD occurrence was not statistically significant in the Gaza Strip-Palestine. Furthermore, no statistically significant association was detected between the polymorphism and the study groups (p-value = 0.511).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asmaa Mahmoud Abuaisha Lamia Faisal Abou Marzoq Mai Sufian Eljbour Eman Saad Fayyad Abeer Kamal Baraka Nedime Serakinci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-18 2018-04-18 5 4 2160 2170 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.429 title description none g Geographical distribution of incidence and mortality of breast cancer and their association with Human Development Index in Europe http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/431 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer malignancy and the important reason for cancer-related mortality in females. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographical distribution of occurrence and mortality of BC and their association with Human Development Index (HDI) in Europe in 2012.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was an ecologic study to evaluate the relation between Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASIR) and Age Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) of BC with HDI, using data of GLOBOCAN project and the HDI report. Using SPSS18 statistical analysis software the data of the study was analyzed; the significance level of the tests was considered as P 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The highest ASIR of BC was observed in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the highest ASMR was found in the FYR Macedonia, Serbia, Belgium, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the ASIR of BC and HDI (r= 0.611, p≤ 0.001), life expectancy in birth (r= 0.706, p≤0.001), average education years (r=0.038, p=0.815) and gross national income per capita (r= 0.719, p≤0.001). Moreover, there was negative correlation between the ASMR of BC and HDI (r= 0.464, p= 0.003), life expectancy at birth (r= 0.416, p=0.008), average education years (r= 0.277, p= 0.083) and gross national income per capita (r= 0.255, p= 0.112). Moreover, it is expected that the number of incidence and mortality from BC is increased within 2012-2035 in European countries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There is a positive correlation between the ASIR of BC and HDI. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between ASMR of BC with HDI. Therefore, the results of this study indicate the importance of using HDI as factors affecting the ASIR and ASMR of BC.</p> Mahdi Mohammadian Khadijah Allah Bakeshei Hamid Salehiniya Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-22 2018-04-22 5 4 2174 2186 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.431 title description none g Effectiveness of neural mobilization and ultrasound therapy on pain severity in carpal tunnel syndrome http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/432 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To compare the effectiveness of neural mobilization and ultrasound therapy on pain severity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 48 CTS patients at the Physiotherapy Department IPM&amp;R, DUHS between 23rd January 2017 and 22nd July 2017. The CTS patients were randomly allocated into 2 equal groups by simple randomization method. Group 1 received neural mobilisation; Group 2 received ultrasound therapy with a predetermined intensity. A total of 12 sessions were given over a period of 4 weeks. Pre and post intervention data were collected from both groups on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure pain. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Comparisons between post test results of both groups were done by using paired sample t-test with a p-value &lt; 0.05 considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: It was found that the 79% (19 cases) and 21% (5 cases) in Group 1 (Neural Mobilization), who prior to the treatment had faced moderate and severe pain, respectively, all experienced successful treatment. Indeed, after treatment 100% (24) of the cases only experienced mild pain, indicating successful treatment. For Group 2 (Ultrasound Therapy), 54% (13) and 46% (11) of cases were with moderate and severe pain before treatment; after administering the treatment 20% (5 cases) had mild pain and 80% (19 cases) had moderate pain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Neural mobilization for median nerve is more beneficial than ultrasound therapy in reducing pain intensity and functional limitations due to CTS.</p> Mehboob Alam Muhammad Khan Syed Imran Ahmed Syed Shahzad Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-23 2018-04-23 5 4 2187 2193 10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.432 title description none g