Biomedical Research and Therapy <p>Biomedical Research and Therapy (ISSN 2198-4093)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is the major forum for basic and translational research into therapies. An international peer-reviewed journal, it publishes high quality open access research articles with a special emphasis on basic, translational and clinical research into molecular therapeutics and cellular therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. The journal also provides reviews, viewpoints, commentaries and reports.&nbsp;Biomedical Research and Therapy's Editorial Policies follow the recommendations of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)</a>, and&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a> for guidance on policies and procedures related to publication ethics.&nbsp;The journal is published monthly, <em><strong>12 issues</strong></em> per year.</p> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Therapeutic potential of curcumin against lead-induced toxicity: A review <p>Lead poisoning causes numerous clinical implications in almost all organs, with the brain, liver, and kidneys serving as the primary targets due to the abundant presence of mitochondria. Curcumin is one of the most potent constituents of Curcuma longa, which is lipophilic, phenolic and water insoluble. Curcumin is a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the treatments of neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular, renal, and liver diseases, with a potential anticancer mechanism in a few clinical and experimental trials. This review will focus on the health impact of lead-induced toxicity in different organ-systems, which occurs as result of increased oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and will discuss the therapeutic potential of curcumin against lead-induced toxicity in both human and animals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abubakar Kabeer Maryam Muhammad Mailafiya Abubakar Danmaigoro Ezamin Abdul Rahim Md Zuki A bu Bakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3053 3066 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.528 title description none g Left ventricle geometry, echoreflectivity and CYP11B2 polymorphism C-344T in hypertensive males <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Hypertensive heart remodeling requires the assumption of different factors, including an increase of left ventricular mass (LVM) and myocardial fibrosis. It was shown that aldosterone stimulates cardiac collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation. CYP11B2 is one of the genes responsible for the effects of aldosterone. Therefore, hypertensive remodeling could be partially related to the polymorphism of this gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of CYP11B2 polymorphism with structural remodeling by changes in geometry and myocardial density to define their role and interaction in hypertensive heart disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study recruited 150 men aged 45-60 with and without essential hypertension (EH), who possessed no irreversible target organ damages. Fifty of them had normal BP, 58 had EH without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and 42 had EH and LVH. Each participant underwent office blood pressure measurement, echocardiography with echo-reflectivity analysis, and determination of the C-344T polymorphism of the aldosterone synthase gene CYP11B2.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Patients with EH and LVH differed not only by LV mass but also by larger body mass, relative wall thickness, and wider echo-reflectivity spectrum. The associations of larger end diastolic diameter with C allele, and the larger thickness of the posterior wall and interventricular septum with T allele, were revealed only in patients with EH and LVH.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Hypertensive patients with LVH are likely to be a distinct cluster with their own genetic predisposition to hypertensive heart disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lozinska Marina Zhebel Vadym Lozinsky Sergiy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 6 3 3027 3033 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.525 title description none g Evaluation of balance function in patients with radiologically (CT scan) confirmed otosclerosis <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess balance function in patients with radiologically confirmed otosclerosis. <strong>Methods</strong>: Sixteen patients (14 females and 2 males), who attended the Neuro-Otology clinic/ ENT clinics at the Royal National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital, participated in this study. After general medical, audiological and Neuro-Otological examination, patients underwent the caloric and rotational testing.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Thirteen of the 16 patients had radiologically confirmed otosclerosis (12 females and 1 male). A total of 3 patients (2 females and 1 male) did not have CT confirmation of otosclerosis, and therefore, were excluded from the study. The remaining 13 patients' data were analyzed. Nine patients had a mixed hearing impairment at least on one side, while eight patients had a bilateral mixed hearing loss and one patient had a sensorineural hearing loss on one side. Four patients had a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Only 1 patient had a canal paresis (CP) at 35 %. None of the patients had any significant directional preponderance (DP). The patient with significant CP (35%) did not show any rotational asymmetry on impulsive rotation. Eleven patients had a rotational chair test. Only one patient had a significant asymmetry to the right at 25.30% (normal range is &lt;20%). Overall, 18% (n = 2) of the radiologically confirmed otosclerosis patients showed an abnormal balance test, including both caloric and rotational tests. More than 80% (n = 9) of the patients with radiological otosclerosis showed balance symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: the current study indicates a high prevalence of balance symptoms (n = 9 or 82%) in patients with radiological otosclerosis, although only a small proportion (n = 2 or 18%) showed an abnormal vestibular function on caloric and impulse rotation testing. However, due to a small number of samples, further validation of this result is warranted.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rania Abdulfattah Sharaf Rudrapathy Palaniappan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 6 3 3034 3039 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.526 title description none g Determination of electrophysiological properties of human monocytes and THP-1 cells by dielectrophoresis <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is based on polarization and bioparticle movement in applied electric fields. Each type of cells has its own electrical properties within the DEP spectra and undergoes significant changes in direction of frequency following an increase of an applied nonuniform alternating current (AC) electric field. Therefore, DEP can be an effective technique for characterization and separation of different cells. The goal of the current study was to determine the electrophysiological properties of human monocytes and a human monocytic cell line originated from an acute monocytic leukemia patient (THP-1), using a lab on a chip (LOC) device that utilised microarray dot electrodes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Ten microliters of human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and highly confluent THP-1 cells were diluted in DEP medium and added to the spacer of the LOC device. Subsequently, the AC signal in the range of 10 kHz to 2 MHz was supplied to the LOC device, and the dynamic behaviours of monocytes and THP-1 cells due to the DEP force were observed. Images were captured and analyzed using MATLAB software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Microscopic visualization showed that THP-1 cells were physically larger than human monocytes. The dielectric parameters (radius, diameter, and conductivity and permittivity of the cytoplasm and membrane) were greater for THP-1 cells compared to monocytes. The cross-over frequencies for THP-1 cells and monocytes were respectively 66 kHz and 280 kHz.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, the DEP spectra reflected the morphological differences between monocytes and THP-1 cells. The dielectric properties for each type of cells can be used as the criteria in the development of DEP-based characterization assays.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rafeezul Mohamed Mohd Azhar Abdul Razak Nahrizul Adib Kadri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3040 3052 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.527 title description none g Assessment of probiotic effects on colorectal surgery complications: A double blinded, randomized clinical trial <p><strong>Background</strong>: Probiotics are living bacteria, which can be used as a food supplement to produce inhibitory agents and compete with pathogens in the guts. Nowadays, because of the easy accessibility and misuse of antibiotics, probiotic usage is increasing. The goal of our study is to assess the effects of probiotics on colorectal surgery complications.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The enrolled cases were selected from colorectal surgery candidate patients, who referred to Sina and Imam Reza Hospitals of Tabriz University from April of 2016 to April of 2017. They were divided into two groups of study and control. For the study group, 7 days before surgery, one capsule of probiotics (Familact) was administrated every night, while the control group was given capsules of placebo.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Although the infective complications, mortality ratio and duration of hospitalization in the study group were lower than the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. Discussion: Our study confirmed that preoperative probiotic consumption in colorectal surgery had not affected complications or mortality of surgery and this finding is in disagreement with some previous studies. Perhaps, other strains of bacteria or different dosage, duration and rout of administration can have positive effects on these complications.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed that there was no correlation between probiotic consumption preoperatively and decreased complications or mortality after colorectal surgery.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Farzad Kakaei Mohammadreza Shahrasbi Touraj Asvadi Kermani Sahar Taheri Kowsar Tarvirdizade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3067 3072 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.529 title description none g Diabetes mellitus type 2 reduces the viability, proliferation, and angiogenic marker of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in low-glucose anti-oxidant-serum supplemented medium <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients induces elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine production, resulting in cellular damage, which may affect the regenerative function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Identifying the effect of diabetes on ADSCs and optimization of culture conditions is therefore an important starting point for the application of autologous stem cells to improve clinicial outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diabetes on ADSCs that cultured in low-glucose anti-oxidant-serum supplemented medium.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and expanded ADSCs were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic donors. SVF were isolated from the abdominal fat, and total viable cells and viability were estimated. Fresh SVF were cultured in low-glucose (100 mg/dL) culture medium supplemented with an anti-oxidant and fetal bovine serum (complete culture medium) at a low density for 14 days for the colony formation unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay. The remaining SVF were expanded to obtain ADSCs in the complete culture medium, which were evaluated based on MSCs surface marker expression and three lineage differentiation potential. Diabetic and non-diabetic ADSCs were compared with respect to population doubling time and viability after serial passage.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Total viable counts (0.97 +/- 0.39 x 10<sup>9</sup> cells/10 mL of adipose tissue, 0.56&nbsp;+/- 0.39 x 10<sup>9</sup> cells/10 mL of adipose tissue, p=0.02, independent t-test), but not viability (98.63&nbsp;+/- 1.12%, 98.20&nbsp;+/- 1.21%, p= 0.38, independent t-test), were significantly higher for SVF cells from adipose tissues of non-diabetic donors than diabetic donors. Fewer CFU-F were obtained from cultured diabetic SVF than from non-diabetic SVF. Diabetic and non-diabetic ADSCs had similar differentiation potency and CD73 (99.44&nbsp;+/- 0.34%, 97.15&nbsp;+/- 5.37%, p= 0.21, Mann-Whitney U test) and CD90 (97.30&nbsp;+/- 2.86%, 95.06 +/- 6.32%, p= 0.90, Mann- Whitney U test) expression, but significantly fewer diabetic ADSCs expressed CD105 or endoglin, a marker for angiogenesis (89.91&nbsp;+/- 7.14%, 57.90&nbsp;+/- 21.36% for non-diabetic and diabetic groups, p&lt; 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Diabetic ADSCs tended to exhibit slower proliferation (4.43&nbsp;+/- 2.70 days, 3.04&nbsp;+/- 0.55 days, p= 0.27 in passage 2 (P2); 3.95&nbsp;+/- 1.55 days, 2.96&nbsp;+/- 0.91 days, p= 0.21 in P3, independent t-test) and lower viability than those of non-diabetic ADSCs (77.65 +/- 10.61%, 87.13&nbsp;+/- 10.06%, p= 0.25 in P2; 82.70&nbsp;+/- 8.07%, 91.15&nbsp;+/- 3.77%, p= 0.04 in P3, independent t-test). Culture in low-glucose anti-oxidant-serum supplemented medium did not improve CD105 expression (65.14&nbsp;+/- 5.86%, 71.06&nbsp;+/- 10.27%, 64.05&nbsp;+/- 10.04%, p= 0.70, for P1, P2, and P3, respectively, repeated measure ANOVA) and cell proliferation (p= 0.50 for P2 <em>vs</em>. P3, paired t-test) of diabetic ADSCs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Overall, diabetes reduced CD105 expression and ADSCs proliferation, suggesting that the angiogenic potency of diabetic ADSCs is reduced. The diabetic ADSCs in this study were also more prone to cell death caused by handling technique compared to non-diabetic ADSCs. Therefore, more advanced culture techniques should be applied to expand ADSCs from diabetic patients to achieve expected clinical outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Karina Karina Iis Rosliana Siti Sobariah Imam Rosadi Irsyah Afini Tias Widyastuti Melinda Remelia Dewi Sukmawati Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3073 3082 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.530 title description none g A comparison study of insertion of spreader graft in the convex side in patients with deviated nose undergoing open septorhinoplasty <p><strong>Background</strong>: Correction of a crooked or deviated nose is a major challenge for rhinoplasty surgeons. In the present study we proposed to compare the aesthetic and functional results of unilateral grafting using spreader grafts on the convex side of the nasal deviation with those used on the concave side.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, the technique and aesthetic and functional outcomes of the correction of crooked noses with spreader graft placement at either convex or concave side of the nasal deviation are presented.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Unilateral spreader graft was used in 66 patients with C-type deviated nose. At the discretion of the rhinoplasty surgeon, the spreader graft was placed in the convex side of the nasal deviation in 33 patients (group A) and in the concave side of the nasal deviation in the remaining 33 patients (group B). During an average following-up period of 18 months (ranged from 8 to 36 months), there were no complications, infection, or graft extrusions. Functional evaluation was performed using a visual analog scale before and 4 months after surgery. Patients were asked to score their nasal breathing on a scale from 0 to 10. In group A (convex group), the mean preoperative score was 6.32+/-1.02 (ranging from 2 to 8), and the mean postoperative score was 2.03+/-1.01 (ranging from 0 to 4). In group B (concave group), the mean preoperative score was 6.76+/-1.10 (ranging from 2 to 8), and the mean postoperative score was 3.67+/-1.80 (ranging from 2 to 7). Patients with spreader graft at the convex side showed higher increase in angle measurements as compared to the patients with spreader graft in the concave side. Moreover, patients with spreader graft at the convex side were more likely to have excellent or good surgical outcomes (according to the degree of correction in the angle of deviation) as compared to patients with spreader graft in the concave side.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The use of the spreader graft is a safe and effective method for correction of crooked noses. We showed that speeder graft at the convex side of C-type nose deformity provided better aesthetic and functional results as compared to the placement of the speeder graft in the concave side of the nasal deformity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Seyed Mehdi Moosavizadeh Hormoz Mahmoudvand Sedigheh Nadri Abdolreza Rouientan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3083 3087 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.531 title description none g Metastatic breast cancer to colon: An unusual site of metastasis with a review of literature <p>Gastrointestinal (GI) metastasis is very rare in patients with breast cancer (BC). This study reports a case with colon carcinoma metastasis originated from breast cancer in Western Iran. A 37-yearold female was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results showed positive estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 scored 2 out of 3, Ki-67 in 30% of tumor cells and P53. The patient was re-admitted two times with urinary and GI symptoms, positive tumor markers and thick colon wall. Samples from the colon were collected to test for metastasis. The pathologist reported metastatic breast ductal carcinoma spread to the colon. The IHC showed CK7, CK20, GCDFP15, ER and PR positivity. In conclusion, this IHC panel can be considered as the differential and diagnostic markers for malignant GI lesion originated from breast cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Parham Nejati Masoud Sadeghi Farhad Amirian Mazaher Ramezani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3088 3092 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.532 title description none g A non-secretory malignant insulinoma: a case report <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: We report a rare case of non-insulin secreting malignant insulinoma of the pancreas and discuss its medical and surgical management.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: Our patient was a 62- year-old Persian female. Over the previous year, she had developed increased abdominal mass, dizziness, weakness, and fatigue. After surgical operation, chemotherapy was given to the patient. Treatment with cisplatin and etoposide was commenced in a 4-month course.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: As a result, chemotherapy showed an important role in the management of insulinoma.</p> Mohammad Zarei Majid Dastras Mostafa Roshanravan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 3 3093 3095 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.533 title description none g