Biomedical Research and Therapy http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT <div class="slider-container"> <h2>Featured Articles</h2> <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" style="height: 300px; padding: 50px;" data-ride="carousel"><!-- Indicators --> <!-- FEATURED ARTICLES CONTENT HERE --> <div class="carousel-inner"> <div class="item active"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/287">Concise review: Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells as cellular therapy </a> <div>Recently, new methods have been developed to isolate and enrich EVs with high performance and low-toxicity. Thus, EVs have emerged as the new generation of stem cell therapy. This concise review aims to highlight some recent achievements of EVs in preclinical and clinical applications.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/198">Association between SNP rs9485372 in TAB2 gene and breast cancer risk 
in Vietnamese women </a> <div>Our finding thus suggested that this SNP is not significantly associated with breast cancer in Vietnamese women. However, the power of this study is quite low at only 4.46% that was partly caused by a small sample size. Hence, a further study needs to be conducted with a larger sample size in the future to confirm the association of this SNP with breast cancer in Vietnamese women.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/178">Up-to-date clinical approaches of biomarkers’ use in heart failure</a> <div>Heart failure (HF) is considered a leading cause of death in patients with established cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases. Although current treatment strategy has improved survival rate and clinical outcomes of HF, the HF prevalence exhibits growth especially in older patients’ population and survivors after coronary atherothrombotic events. Current clinical guidelines regarding treatment and prevention of HF claim the role of biological markers as pretty easy and powerful tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognostication of HF.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/179">Comparative treatment efficiency of adipose and bone marrow derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in mouse models of liver fibrosis </a> <div>After 21 days of transplantation, the results showed that the stem cell treated groups ameliorated better than the placebo group. MSC treated groups showed reduced AST and ALT levels, down-regulated expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, and improved liver histopathology. Both sources of MSCs (bone marrow and adipose tissue) were effective in the mouse model of liver fibrosis.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/182">Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study </a> <div>The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58) by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58) by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45) by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/203">Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate and its Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as antipsychotic drug in rat model of schizophrenia </a> <div>QFSLN treatment showed enhanced effect over QF in a dose-dependent manner with minimal side effects in schizophrenic rats. In addition, immunohistochemical examinations of brain tissues confirmed the biochemical data.</div> </div> </div> <!-- Left and right controls --> <p><a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="prev"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-left"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span> <span class="sr-only">Previous</span> </a> <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="next"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-right"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span><span class="sr-only">Next</span> </a></p> </div> </div> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="http://www.biomedpress.org/" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Rabies in Asian Countries: Where we are stand? http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/485 <p>Rabies is one of the neglected zoonotic disease in Asian and African countries. This article highlights the rabies death rate in Asian countries during 2010-2014. High death rate was reported in China, Philippine and Vietnam. The overall death rate has dropped since 2010 to 2014 but still the disease is prevalent in some Asian countries. Reinforcement of the rabies surveillance is needed to strengthened national, regional and global reporting system to control and eliminate the disease by 2030.</p> Tauseef Ahmad Taha Hussein Musa Hui Jin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 5 10 2719 2720 10.15419/bmrat.v5i10.485 title description none g Protective antioxidant effect of melanin against chemical burn-induced esophageal injury http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/484 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oxidative stress is the main cause of mortality in chemical burn-induced esophageal injury. Melanin, a natural antioxidant compound from yeast-like fungus Nadsoniella nigra strain X- 1, has been shown to decrease the content of lipid peroxidation products after burn. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of melanin in the treatment of esophageal injury after a chemical burn.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A alkali burn model was used to induce injury to the esophagus in immature rats. Changes in the levels of malondialdehyde, secondary products of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase in the blood, as well as changes in the esophagus tissue, were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Melanin decreased the content of lipid peroxidation products following burn injury. Melanin increased the activity of superoxidase dismutase and reduced the activity of catalase, as well as reduced esophagus oxidative injury in our chemical burn model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Melanin treatment may protect against chemical burninduced esophageal injury, possibly by inhibiting burn-induced oxidative stress.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Natalia Chornenka Yana Raetska Dmitro Grebinyk Alevtina Dranitsina Olexiy Savchuk Tetiana Beregova Ludmila Ostapchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-04 2018-10-04 5 10 2712 2718 10.15419/bmrat.v5i10.484 title description none g Comparing the duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine between drug-dependent and non-dependent patients http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/486 <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim</strong>: Drug abusers have much lower pain threshold, in a way that the duration of the effect of anesthesia on controlling their pain is still not fully known. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the duration of spinal anesthesia induced with bupivacaine between drug-dependent and non-dependent individuals.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on two 60-member groups consisting of drug-dependent and non-dependent patients undergoing lowerlimb orthopedic surgery. Patients were selected via simple convenience sampling and underwent a similar procedure of spinal anesthesia using the same needle and medicine by an anesthesiologist, who was unaware of the patients' placement in the study groups. After surgery, the duration of patients' anesthesia was correspondingly measured in both groups and compared using the independent t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In this research study, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of age and gender. The mean duration of opium abuse in the drug-dependent patient group was reported to be 7.5+/-1.3 years. In addition, the duration of spinal anesthesia in the drug-dependent patient group was shorter, compared to the non-dependent group (P=0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: According to the results of the study, intrathecal bupivacaine is not a durable anesthesia, for performing surgeries that might last more than an hour, in drug-dependent patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Faranak Beirami Masoum Khoshfetrat Hadi Khosravi Aliakbar Keykha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 5 10 2721 2725 10.15419/bmrat.v5i10.486 title description none g Efficacy of intrathecal midazolam on enhancing analgesic effect of fentanyl in patients undergoing lower limb surgery http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/487 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Co-administration of drugs with synergistic effects is considered as one of the methods to increase the effectiveness of intrathecal anesthesia and to reduce the need for injectable analgesics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intrathecal midazolam on enhancing the analgesic effect of fentanyl in patients undergoing lower limb surgery.</p> <p><strong>Materials</strong>: The present double-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 90 candidate patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery in 2017 at Khatam-Al-Anbiya Hospital in the city of Zahedan, Iran. To this end, the patients were selected via convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into three groups. Afterwards, 3 cc of 0.5% hyperbaric Marcaine was injected intrathecally in the first group, 3 cc of Marcaine + 25 ug of fentanyl was administered to the second group, and 3 cc of Marcaine + 25 ug of fentanyl + 1 mg of midazolam was administered to the third group (the final volume of all three syringes was brought up to 3.7 cc with normal saline). The duration of sensory nerve block and those of motor block and analgesia, as well as changes in vital signs, were then measured in these groups. Moreover, the data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics (Version 22.0) through Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age and gender distribution of the patients in the three study groups did not differ significantly. The mean duration of sensory nerve block was equal to 98.6+/-11.1 min in the first group, 142.2+/-12.4 min in the second group, and 174.3+/-10.9 min in the third group; all showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001, P=0.001, P=0.000).The mean duration of analgesia was also reported to be 204.43+/-0.3 min in the first group, 323.62+/-7.4 min in the second group, and 526.22+/-0.9 min in the third group, indicating a statistically significant difference between the three study groups (P=0.0001, P=0.000, P=000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study demonstrated that adding midazolam to intrathecal fentanyl could significantly increase the duration of sensory nerve block and that of post-operative analgesia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Masoum Khoshfetrat Sima Davarpanah Aliakbar Keykha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 5 10 2726 2732 10.15419/bmrat.v5i10.487 title description none g Physiological and biochemical studies on the protective effect of Ficus carica leaf extract, vitamin C or their combination on liver toxicity induced by lead acetate in male rats http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/488 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Lead is an environmental contaminant, which is toxic to organ systems in human and other animals. The present study investigated the possible protective role of Ficus carica leaf extract, vitamin C or the combined treatment in lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: One hundred and twenty-six adult male albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 18). G1 (control group) received distilled water. G2 (lead acetate group) received lead acetate at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. G3 (Ficus carica group) received Ficus carica leaves extract at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. G4 (Ficus and lead group) received Ficus carica leaves extract followed by lead acetate after 20 minutes. G5 (vitamin C group) received vitamin C at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage, G6 (vitamin c and lead group) received vitamin C followed by lead acetate after 20 minutes. And, G7 (Ficus, vitamin C, and lead group) received Ficus carica leaves extract and vitamin C followed by lead acetate after 20 minutes. The treatment extended for six weeks, blood and specimens were collected at a 2-week interval. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), direct bilirubin (DB), lipid peroxidation biomarker (Malondialdehyde (MDA)), antioxidants enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH)) in liver tissue and histopathological changes in liver were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Lead acetate caused significant increases in AST, ALT, ALP, DB and MDA levels. In addition, TP and level of SOD and GSH significantly decreased compared to the control group. The pre-treatment with the combination of Ficus carica and vitamin C improved liver parameters, the level of antioxidant enzymes as well as histopathological changes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of Ficus carica leaf extract and vitamin C had a remarkable protective action against lead acetate induced- oxidative damage in rats.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abdel Aziz A. Diab Mansour H. Zahra Mai S. Attia Ahmed M. Shehata ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 5 10 2733 2745 10.15419/bmrat.v5i10.488 title description none g