Biomedical Research and Therapy <p>Biomedical Research and Therapy (ISSN 2198-4093)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is the major forum for basic and translational research into therapies. An international peer-reviewed journal, it publishes high quality open access research articles with a special emphasis on basic, translational and clinical research into molecular therapeutics and cellular therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. The journal also provides reviews, viewpoints, commentaries and reports.&nbsp;Biomedical Research and Therapy's Editorial Policies follow the recommendations of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)</a>, and&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a> for guidance on policies and procedures related to publication ethics.&nbsp;The journal is published monthly, <em><strong>12 issues</strong></em> per year.</p> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Can environmental factors increase the risk of multiple sclerosis? A narrative review <p>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders, which causes nontrauma in young adults in many countries. An important symptom of a disease is the presence of plaque in the brain or the spinal cord, which includes a demyelination region along with relative preservation of axons that may vary in acute and chronic stages. This review was conducted using related keywords through searching in scientific databases. Assessing the related papers showed that in general, MS is recognized as an autoimmune disease with genetic background caused by uncertain environmental factors. Epidemiological effects based on race, sex, geographical location are strongly linked to the frequency, types and severity of the disease. Vitamin D, infection, smoking and diet have been reported to be potential factors associated with MS. Due to the importance of these factors in MS disease, the control of them is potentially useful to prevent the disease and the rapid progression and exacerbation of its symptoms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hoda Naghshineh Seyed Mohammad Masood Hojjati Ali Alizadeh Khatir Payam Saadat Alijan Ahmadi Ahangar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 6 12 3513 3517 10.15419/bmrat.v6i12.579 title description none g Evaluation of in vitro release kinetics and mechanisms of curcumin-loaded cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Curcumin has remarkable pharmacological activities but remains clinically constrained due to its poor bioavailability as a result of insolubility. This has necessitated the search for natural inorganic materials for curcumin delivery. Cockleshells are external hard materials of marine animals often treated as unwanted wastes, which are excellent sources of calcium carbonate. This study aimed to synthesize cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles (CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP) for delivery of curcumin and to evaluate its kinetic release <em>in vitro</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP was synthesized and conjugated with curcumin (Cur-CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP) using a simple top down approach and characterized for its physicochemical properties as a potential curcumin carrier. The<em> in vitro</em> release profile was assessed using the dialysis bag membrane method. The release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas, Zero order, and Higuchi models to evaluate the mechanism(s) of the release pattern.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A spherical shaped CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP with a surface area of 14.48+/-0.1 m<sup>2</sup>/g, with mean diameter size of 21.38+/-2.7 nm and zeta potential of -18.7 mV, was synthesized and found to have high loading content and encapsulation efficiency. The FT-IR and XRD revealed fewer observable changes on the peaks after conjugation. The profile of the <em>in vitro</em> kinetic release demonstrated a sustained release, and which was best fitted to the Higuchi equation model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study showed the capacity of the synthesized CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP to encapsulate curcumin efficiently with a stable release <em>in vitro</em>. This provides insight into and rationale for the potential of CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP for curcumin delivery. Therefore, CSCaCO<sub>3</sub>NP holds great prospects in the preclinical framework for enhancing curcumin efficacy in oral therapeutic applications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maryam Muhammad Mailafiya Kabeer Abubakar Abubakar Danmaigoro Samaila Musa Chiroma Ezamin Bin Abdul Rahim Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-21 2019-12-21 6 12 3518 3540 10.15419/bmrat.v6i12.580 title description none g Selecting euploid embryo for transfer by preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy improved clinical outcomes in patients with advanced maternal age <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study aimed to investigate whether selecting euploid embryos by preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) can improve the clinical outcomes in patients with advanced maternal age. Hence, it provides evidence about the role of PGT-A in the treatment for patients with advanced maternal age in Vietnam.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted at IVFMD, My Duc Hospital, Vietnam, from March 2017 to March 2019. There were 244 patients taking preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A group). Biopsy was performed at the blastocyst stage. On the day of biopsy, about 5-6 trophectoderm cells were collected and sent to analysis, while the remaining was individually vitrified to be used for embryo transfer to the patient. When patients had PGT-A, the clinician consulted and indicated the euploid embryo for frozen embryo transfer cycle. The ongoing pregnancy rate was compared with the group of patients who only performed blastocyst transfer (non-PGT-A group). Other outcomes, such as the average number of transferred embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, miscarriage rate and multiple pregnancy rate, were also compared between the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the total of 493 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, there were 244 patients in PGT-A group and 249 patients in non-PGT-A group. The patient characteristics of the two groups were similar (p &gt; 0.05). A total of 816 blastocysts were biopsied and 315 (38.6%) of these were aneuploidy. The ongoing pregnancy rate of PGT-A group was significantly higher than non-PGT-A group (43.9%<em> vs</em>. 32.1%, p = 0.01). Moreover, mean number of transferred embryos and multiple pregnancy rate of PGT-A group was lower than non-PGT-A group (1.3 <em>vs.</em> 2, p &lt; 0.001; 5.7% <em>vs.</em> 12%, p &lt; 0.001, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: In patients with advanced maternal age, the transfer of euploidy embryos selected by PGT-A improved the ongoing pregnancy rate and reduced the number of transferred embryos and multiple pregnancy rate. Therefore, this group of patients may benefit from PGT-A.</p> Le Thi Bich Phuong Vo Nguyen Thuc Pham Thieu Quan Le Hoang Anh Dang Quang Vinh Nguyen Thi Thuong Huyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 12 3541 3549 10.15419/bmrat.v6i12.581 title description none g