Biomedical Research and Therapy <p>Biomedical Research and Therapy (ISSN 2198-4093)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is the major forum for basic and translational research into therapies. An international peer-reviewed journal, it publishes high quality open access research articles with a special emphasis on basic, translational and clinical research into molecular therapeutics and cellular therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. 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This article is published with open access by <a href="" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Clinical, microbiological research of the effectiveness of inhalation use of quaternary ammonium antiseptic in the prevention and treatment of infectious respiratory complications in critically ill patients <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The aim is to study the microbiological and clinical efficacy of decamethoxinebased quaternary ammonium antiseptic inhalations in the complex management of respiratory infectious complications in critically ill children.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The use of inhalation of antiseptic medicinal decamethoxine (DCM) was studied in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (n=30), of ages 12-18 years. All patients received standard intensive care according to the guidelines. Inhalations of 5 mL DCM (0.02%) antiseptic per inhalation TID for 7 days in combination with systemic antibiotic therapy were used in the study group (n=15). Clinical microbiological studies and assessment of Toll-like receptor (<em>e.g</em>. TLR-4) serum levels were performed in patients.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The use of DCM inhalations along with systemic antibiotic therapy improved parameters of dynamic compliance by 3.4-fold and decreased lung resistance by 2.4-fold in patients after 48-72 hours of mechanical ventilation. The microbial spectrum of patients at the beginning of VAP was represented by gram-positive (<em>S. aureus</em> — 28.6%, <em>S. pyogenes</em> — 10.2%) and gramnegative (<em>P. aeruginosa</em> — 16.3%; <em>A. baumannii</em> — 12.24%; <em>K. pneumoniae</em> — 10.2%) pathogens. The pathogens were isolated in the monoculture (20.4%) and in microbial associations (79.6%). A significant decrease by 3 orders of magnitude (log (2.640.43) CFU/mL) in the microbial count in tracheobronchial secretions was determined after 7 days of additional use of DCM inhalations when compared to the initial levels of microbial colonization (p&lt;0.001). The microbial spectrum of the respiratory tract was predominantly represented by <em>S. aureus</em> (27.78%),<em> A. baumannii</em> (11.11%) and <em>E. cloacae</em> (5.56%) in monoculture (61.11%), whereas the microbial count was 4 orders of magnitude higher in the comparison group, versus that of the study group (p&lt;0.001), and was represented by microbial associations (93.33%). A strong correlation was found between the reduction of the gram-negative pathogen count and the decrease of TLR-4 serum levels (r-Pearson=0.893), that almost reached baseline levels after DCM inhalations, while TLR-4 levels remained 2 times higher than baseline levels after the use of systemic antimicrobial therapy alone (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The use of DCM inhalations in combination with systemic antibiotic therapy provides for an effective reduction of pathogen count in the respiratory tract, leading to the early (48-72h) improvement in lung ventilation and TLR-4 serum levels, and subsequent significant improvement of treatment efficacy in severe VAP patients.</p> Oleksandr A. Nazarchuk Dmytro V. Dmytriiev Kostiantyn D. Dmytriiev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-08 2018-12-08 5 12 2850 2862 10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.504 title description none g Elevated levels of circulating soluble ST2 at discharge predict late adverse ventricular remodeling in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating level of sST2 would predict adverse LV remodeling in STEMI patients with TIMI III flow through the myocardial infarctrelated coronary artery six months after intervention.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study retrospectively included 65 patients with STEMI and TIMI-III flow after primary or facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These patients were admitted to the intensive care unit of L.T. Malaya Therapy National Institute between August 2016 and July 2018. Primary PCI with bare-metal stent implantation was performed in 33 patients, and 32 patients were previously treated with primary thrombolysis followed by PCI within 12 hours after initial STEMI confirmation. Angiographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. B-mode, Tissue Doppler, Strain Echocardiography, and blood sampling for biomarker assays were performed at admission, at discharge from the hospital, and at six months after STEMI.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Late adverse LV remodeling is defined as an increase of LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) six months post STEMI (first cohort, n=29), while other patients (second cohort, n=36) did not demonstrate a decreasing trend of LV EDV, or they had never revealed any decrease of this parameter. There was a significant difference between the two cohorts in the serum level of sST2 at discharge, while the levels of natriuretic peptides, troponin I were similar (P=0.24). Indeed, the circulating level of sST2 in the first cohort was higher than that of the second cohort (59.72 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.99 ng/mL -139.53 ng/mL versus 44.75 ng/mL; 95%CI =28.25 ng/mL -77.32 ng/mL, P=0.039, respectively). ROC-analyses showed that the best balanced cut-off point for sST2 to predict adverse remodeling at 6 months post PCI was 35 ng/mL (AUC=0.672 95% C 0.523-0.799; P=0.0344 sensitivity = 46.7% and specificity = 85.7%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: We showed that the circulating level of sST2 measured at discharge in acute STEMI patients intervented by PCI could predict late adverse LV remodeling six months post PCI. These findings offer a new biomarker to stratify patients with successful coronary re-vascularization at risk of HF.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Olga V. Petyunina Mykola P. Kopytsya Alexander E. Berezin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-08 2018-12-08 5 12 2863 2875 10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.505 title description none g Effects of aqueous extract of polyherbal formulation against hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxin in a rat model <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hyperthyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland secretes more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Thyroid hormone is essential for the normal growth and development of normal organs. Polyherb (POH) formulation has proven to be useful in number of diseases and has been used in folk medicine as an anti-hyperthyroidism, anti-oxidant, and appetitestimulating agent. The aim of the study was to evaluate the curative effect of POH against L-thyroxin (LT4)-induced hyperthyroidism in male rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Seven groups (10 rats each) were used for this purpose. Determination of phytochemical analysis, oxidative stress markers, brain appetite marker and cell energy marker were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Thyroid hormones were detected via ELISA, and liver functions were determined by colorimetric method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The data showed that LT4 altered thyroid function via decreasing serum Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum total protein, albumin and globulin, while increasing Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Moreover, oxidative stress markers in liver tissues were increased, via up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Meanwhile, glutathione (GSH) and ATP were alleviated; in contrast, metabolites of ADP and AMP were elevated. Neuronal appetite marker in brain tissue was decreased via low serotonin levels. On the other hand, rat groups treated with POH and Carbimazole (CBZ) showed markedly amelioration of hyperthyroidism in rats at low dose only but did not show complete amelioration at high dose of POH. The data were confirmed through histopathological examination of the thyroid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The data obtained demonstrated that POH, at low dose, can be very effective for completely treating hyperthyroidism in rats, and was safer than Carbimazole (CBZ) and ameliorated most signaling pathways and in different tissues.</p> Sahar B. Ahmed Asmaa M. Moghazy Omar A. Ahmed-Farid Hassan A. Esebery ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 5 12 2876 2887 10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.506 title description none g