Biomedical Research and Therapy http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT <div class="slider-container"> <h2>Featured Articles</h2> <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" style="height: 300px; padding: 50px;" data-ride="carousel"><!-- Indicators --> <!-- FEATURED ARTICLES CONTENT HERE --> <div class="carousel-inner"> <div class="item active"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/287">Concise review: Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells as cellular therapy </a> <div>Recently, new methods have been developed to isolate and enrich EVs with high performance and low-toxicity. Thus, EVs have emerged as the new generation of stem cell therapy. This concise review aims to highlight some recent achievements of EVs in preclinical and clinical applications.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/198">Association between SNP rs9485372 in TAB2 gene and breast cancer risk 
in Vietnamese women </a> <div>Our finding thus suggested that this SNP is not significantly associated with breast cancer in Vietnamese women. However, the power of this study is quite low at only 4.46% that was partly caused by a small sample size. Hence, a further study needs to be conducted with a larger sample size in the future to confirm the association of this SNP with breast cancer in Vietnamese women.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/178">Up-to-date clinical approaches of biomarkers’ use in heart failure</a> <div>Heart failure (HF) is considered a leading cause of death in patients with established cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases. Although current treatment strategy has improved survival rate and clinical outcomes of HF, the HF prevalence exhibits growth especially in older patients’ population and survivors after coronary atherothrombotic events. Current clinical guidelines regarding treatment and prevention of HF claim the role of biological markers as pretty easy and powerful tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognostication of HF.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/179">Comparative treatment efficiency of adipose and bone marrow derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in mouse models of liver fibrosis </a> <div>After 21 days of transplantation, the results showed that the stem cell treated groups ameliorated better than the placebo group. MSC treated groups showed reduced AST and ALT levels, down-regulated expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, and improved liver histopathology. Both sources of MSCs (bone marrow and adipose tissue) were effective in the mouse model of liver fibrosis.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/182">Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study </a> <div>The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58) by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58) by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45) by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.</div> </div> <div class="item"><a href="http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/203">Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate and its Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as antipsychotic drug in rat model of schizophrenia </a> <div>QFSLN treatment showed enhanced effect over QF in a dose-dependent manner with minimal side effects in schizophrenic rats. In addition, immunohistochemical examinations of brain tissues confirmed the biochemical data.</div> </div> </div> <!-- Left and right controls --> <p><a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="prev"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-left"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span> <span class="sr-only">Previous</span> </a> <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="next"><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-right"><span style="display: none;">left-arrow</span></span><span class="sr-only">Next</span> </a></p> </div> </div> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="http://www.biomedpress.org/" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Assessment of siRNA as a therapeutic molecule in Transient Receptor Potential Channel 5 gene silencing: a computational approach http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/405 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ion channels play a crucial role in Glomerular filter damage that contributes to albuminuria. Transient receptor potential channel 5 (TRPC5) gene mediating such damage, demand for its target specific inhibition by RNA interference mechanism. Designing and selecting potential siRNA for TRPC5 gene silencing by computational analysis.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: The mRNA sequence was retrieved from NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information). siRNA sequences were designed specifically from target genes using InvivoGen siRNA wizard software. Thermodynamic RNA-RNA interactions were used to evaluate the gene silencing efficiency by minimum free energy of hybridization; the hybridization structures were also obtained using BIBISERV2-RNAHybrid.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The minimum free energy of hybridization of the three designed siRNAs (siRNA1, siRNA2 and siRNA3) were as follows: -28.2 kcal/mol, -24.1 kcal/mol, and-25.6 kcal/mol. Their corresponding GC content were 47.62%, 52.38% and 47.62%, respectively. Thus, siRNA1 had the least minimum free energy of hybridization (i.e. -28.2 kcal/mol) with low GC content (47.62%), and high linearity with minimal h-b index and loop structure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: RNAi therapy can provide a new platform for efficient and targeted therapeutics. Further in vivo investigations are necessary to further validate their efficacy.</p> Bhooma Vijayaraghavan Giri Padmanabhan Kumaresan Ramanathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 5 1 1911 1922 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.405 title description none g Effect of Gabapentin on nerve conduction studies in carpal tunnel syndrome http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/406 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The most common type of neuropathy in adults is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) which is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the efficacy of gabapentin on nerve conduction studies in patients with mild CTS. The patients with mild CTS were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received naproxen alone (500 mg/day, orally) while group B received both gabapentin (100-300 mg) and naproxen (500 mg/day, orally) for two months. Sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and distal motor latency (DML) were performed at baseline and two months after treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were no significant differences between the two groups with regards to the outcome parameters before initiation of intervention. The SNCV and DML showed no significant improvements in group A (p&gt;0.05), whereas for group B the SNCV and DML of the median nerve were significantly improved at two months after treatment (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Gabapentin was found to be effective for SNCV and DML in patients with mild CTS over a two-month period.</p> Reza Sabet Karamatollah Rahmanian Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi Abdolhossein Madani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 5 1 1923 1930 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.406 title description none g Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMP-1 in urinary bladder cancer patients http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/407 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the ninth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve survival of patients. In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive urinary bladder cancer, a large number of tumor markers have been identified and strictly assessed. Some of the best candidates as predictive markers in oncologic diseases belong to the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The main focus of investigation in this study was on MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1&nbsp;(TIMP-1) as plasma biomarkers in patients with urinary bladder cancer (depending on tumor stage).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Plasma levels of MMP-9 were significantly higher in all patients with UBC compared to control subjects. The plasma level of MMP-8 in Stage III UBC patients was 1.2 times higher than in control group. The plasma level of MMP-3 was higher in patients with bladder cancer of Stage I, II or III (compared to control subjects). Moreover, high plasma levels of TIMP-1 were observed in patients with UBC stages III and IV.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Overall, the measurements of circulating blood levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 are progressively dissimilar among the various groups (UBC versus control subjects). Thus, changes in MMP levels may be used for monitoring and/or predicting progression of UBC.</p> Ishchuk T.V. Glavachek D.O. Savchuk O.M. Yakovlev  P.G. Falaleeva T.M. Beregova T.V. Ostapchenko L.I. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 5 1 1931 1940 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.407 title description none g Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial effects of Medicago sativa, Onosma sericeum, Parietaria judaica L., Phlomis persica and Echinophora platyloba DC. on Enterococcus faecalis http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/408 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Since drug resistance has become one of the predominant problems of health worldwide, it is necessary to use new methods to combat drug-resistant bacteria. In this regard, medicinal plants are considered one of the richest sources to produce antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects as well as total phenolic and flavonoid contents of a number of medicinal plants collected from the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces of India, in order to investigate their potential use for the production of new antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In this experimental study, the maceration method was used to prepare hydroalcoholic extract of Medicago sativa, Onosma sericeum, Parietaria judaica&nbsp;L., Phlomis persica and Echinophora platyloba DC. The effect of these plants on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was investigated. To determine the antibacterial effect of the extracts, broth microdilution in sterile 96-well plate was used according to the McFarland standard (105 CFU/ml). The total phenolic content was assayed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalent. The total flavonoid content was assayed by aluminum chloride colorimetric method and expressed in terms of rutin equivalent.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Based on the results of this study, the 512, 256, 128, 32 and 32 µg/ml doses were determined to be the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and the 1024, 1024, 512, 128 and 128 μg/ml doses were derived as the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) of M. sativa, O. Sericeum, P. judaica, P. persica and E. platyloba, respectively. E. faecalis and P. judaica contained the highest total phenolic content and flavonoid content, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Given the comparatively higher antibacterial effect of P. persica and E. platyloba, as well as the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in these plants, it is recommended that these plants be further investigated in feasibility studies for the production of new antibiotics.<br><br></p> Mansoor Khaledi Fatemeh Khaledi Majid Asadi-Samani Abolfazl Gholipour Ahmad Mahmoodi Kouhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 5 1 1941 1951 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.408 title description none g Comparison of DNA Damage and Homocysteine Content in Blood of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients and Control Subjects in Punjab, Pakistan http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/410 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Thyroid cancers are common endocrine tumors with diverse medical and histological structures. During development/progression from normal to neoplastic cell, there is a gradual increase in the function/activity of proto-oncogenes, transcription factors and metastasis elements. The main objective of this study is to evaluate per-oxidation of lipid content, total oxidative stress, and the profile of homocysteine (and DNA damage) in the erythrocytes of thyroid carcinoma patients as compared with those of control subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: All risk variables and biochemical analyses were quantitatively determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A noteworthy increase in malondialdehyde, globulin, and DNA damage in thyroid carcinoma patients were repeatedly observed. In contrast, healthy individuals showed an increased level of HDL-C and total anti-oxidant response.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is suggested that these parameters have a pivotal role in the diagnostic process of determining thyroid carcinoma patients. Oxidized products of macromolecules in the blood of such patients impart major function in causing thyroid carcinoma disease.</p> Muhammad Usman Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka Asma Haque Shumaila Bakhtiar Luqman Khan Zubair Ibrahim Farid ul Haq Shah Fahad Qazi Adnan Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-25 2018-01-25 5 1 1952 1966 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.410 title description none g The burden of non-communicable diseases in relation to economic status of countries http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/411 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and national human development index (HDI) of a country, as well as investigate the correlation between premature mortality from NCDs and national HDI.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Data for age-standardized mortality rate (ASRM) of NCDs and premature mortality (before age 70 years) in percentage for total NCDs in 2015 were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) databases. National HDI data for the year 2015 were obtained from the 2015 Human Development Report. Linear regression model was used for assessment of correlation between HDI and mortality. One-way ANOVA was used to test the difference in mean mortality of various HDI group countries; P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results suggested an inverse correlation between HDI and ASRM for both men and women. The negative relation was also reported for percentage premature mortality and HDI. Tukey post hoc test (p &lt; 0.001) indicated that countries with very high HDI have low ASRM and premature mortality (compared to those with high HDI and so on). The greatest mortality was observed in low HDI countries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Management of non-communicable diseases is one of the greatest challenges for low and middle HDI countries. In order to control the disease burden, governments should pay serious attention to their economic development.</p> Ruqiya Pervaiz Özlem Ercantan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-26 2018-01-26 5 1 1967 1974 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.411 title description none g Prevalence and gender differences in psychiatric disorders and DSM-IV mental disorders: a population-based study http://www.bmrat.org/index.php/BMRAT/article/view/412 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The early diagnosis of psychiatric disorders is critical as it improves the chance of recovery for patients. The aim of this study was to determine gender disparities in psychiatric and mental disorders in adult persons and to examine the validity of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28; Persian version) in the diagnosis of patients with suspected psychiatric disorders, along with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling method in three steps. Subjects were screened by GHQ-28 and then evaluated by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) for diagnosis/classification of mental disorders. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. The ROC curve was used to assess cut-off points.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 763 participants (aged 15 and above), 25.8% of responders demonstrated characteristics of psychological distress; the prevalence in males and females were 20.9% and 29.8%, respectively. The common mental disorders in males were anxiety disorder (18.2%), followed by any major depressive disorder (MDD) (17.4. %), and compulsive disorder (10.0%). In females, the common mental disorders were anxiety disorder (23.6%), followed by any MDD (22.7%), compulsive disorder (13.9%), phobia disorder (10.4%) and psychotic disorder (6.1%). ROC analysis showed that 91.7% of suspected persons had a mental disorder as assessed by DSM-IV-TR.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yousef Veisani Ali Delpisheh Fathola Mohamadian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-26 2018-01-26 5 1 1975 1985 10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.412 title description none g