Biomedical Research and Therapy <p>Biomedical Research and Therapy (ISSN 2198-4093)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is the major forum for basic and translational research into therapies. An international peer-reviewed journal, it publishes high quality open access research articles with a special emphasis on basic, translational and clinical research into molecular therapeutics and cellular therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. The journal also provides reviews, viewpoints, commentaries and reports.&nbsp;Biomedical Research and Therapy's Editorial Policies follow the recommendations of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)</a>, and&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a> for guidance on policies and procedures related to publication ethics.&nbsp;The journal is published monthly, <em><strong>12 issues</strong></em> per year.</p> BioMedPress (BMP) en-US Biomedical Research and Therapy 2198-4093 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by <a href="" target="_blank">BioMedPress</a>. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Reported Polio cases in Pakistan during 2019 <p>This report describes polio cases, vaccination uncertainty and challenges, and the way forward to eradicate polio from Pakistan. Numerous articles, government and non-government documents, and survey reports were studied and an online search was made to collect information on polio in Pakistan. Once again the polio vaccination program has been stopped and accused by the local community in Pakistan as a result an increase has been seen in polio cases in the last year. In 2019, a total of 117 wild poliovirus (WPV) and 18 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported from the country. The majority of cases were from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province as a result of polio vaccination uncertainty and many challenges faced by the vaccination program in the region. Pakistan reported their highest annual number of WPV cases as compared to last few years. This increase is not only an alarming threat for the country but also a key challenge for the global polio eradication movement. Increase awareness and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas especially in the remote area where every year many children missed vaccination to achieve global polio eradication goals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tauseef Ahmad Haroon Haroon Taha Hussein Musa Muhammad Khan Mukhtiar Baig Feng Ning ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 7 3 3693 3696 10.15419/bmrat.v7i3.596 title description none g Sodium citrate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Cancer cells rely on glycolysis to generate energy and synthesize biomass for cell growth and proliferation (the Warburg effect). Recent studies have shown that citrate has an inhibitory effect on several cancer cells, such as human gastric cancer and ovarian cancer, by inhibiting glycolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of citrate on the proliferation and apoptosis induction of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was used in this study. The cell proliferation was evaluated by Alamar blue assay. The apoptotic status of the HepG2 cells was recorded by Annexin V/7-AAD assay and caspase 3/7 activation assay. DNA fragmentation was evaluated by nucleus staining assay with Hoechst 33342.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that citrate is able to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce apoptosis in these cells. The initiation time of apoptosis is 4 hours after treatment with 10 mM citrate. Morphology characteristics of DNA fragmentation and broken membranes were also recorded in the apoptotic cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, our study demonstrates that citrate causes HepG2 cell death by the apoptosis pathway.</p> Phuc Hong Vo Sinh Truong Nguyen Nghia Minh Do Kiet Dinh Truong Phuc Van Pham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-21 2020-03-21 7 3 3659 3666 10.15419/bmrat.v7i3.592 title description none g Anti-tumor activity of plant extracts against human breast cancer cells are different in monolayer and three-dimensional cell culture screening models: A comparison on 34 extracts <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The monolayer cell culture model is a popular model for screening anti-tumor activity of plant extracts. However, almost the extracts selected for screening in this model have failed in subsequent animal models. Therefore, there is only about 5 % of candidates from the original thousands of drugs that are screened which ultimately reach clinical trial. This study aimed to compare the differences in anti-tumor activity of 34 plant extracts against breast cancer cells in 2 models of monolayer cell culture (2D) and in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, CD44<sup>+</sup>CD24<sup>-</sup> MCF-7, VN9, and CD44<sup>+</sup>CD24<sup>-</sup> VN9) were used to generate the 2D and 3D models (the 3D model was developed by culturing breast cancer cells in matrigel). The extracts were got from the plant extract library that prepared in the previous study. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated via half inhibitory concentrations( IC<sub>50</sub> values).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 34 extracts, E12, E7, E5 and E6 of them had an effect on MCF-7, CD44<sup>+</sup>CD24<sup>-</sup> MCF-7, VN9 and CD44<sup>+</sup>CD24<sup>-</sup> VN9 cells, respectively. The results indicated 10 potentially strong candidates for future drug development targeting hypoxic areas in breast cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The 3D culture model exhibited higher resistance to extracts than the 2D culture model. The CD44<sup>+</sup>CD24<sup>-</sup> cell population of both VN9 and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher drug resistance than the original cell lines (VN9 and MCF-7).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nhan Lu-Chinh Phan Khuong Duy Pham Mai Thi-Thanh Nguyen Ngoc Kim Phan Kiet Dinh Truong Phuc Van Pham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-22 2020-03-22 7 3 3667 3677 10.15419/bmrat.v7i3.593 title description none g A comparison of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome by two types of soft embryo transfer catheters <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: One of the remaining challenges in assisted reproductive procedures, especially in vitro fertilization (IVF), is proper embryo transfer. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare IVFembryo transfer outcome by two types of soft embryo transfer catheters in Hamadan Endometrics and Endometriosis Research Center (Iran).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this clinical trial study, 100 patients who were candidates for IVF were evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (A=50 and B=50). The IVF was identical for both groups until the embryo transfer stage. For group A, soft catheter CH3 PM TRANS SET MINI was used and in group B, KITAZATO soft catheter was used for embryo transfer. All transfers were performed by one person. Patients were recruited using checklists, demographic information, infertility history, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) serum levels at day 14 post-transfer, and pregnancy bag 28 days after transfer. The results were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, chi-square and t-test. The significance level was &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of group A and group B was 30.12 and 29.24 years, respectively (p=0.341). The mean duration of infertility in both groups was not statistically significant, and in groups A and B were 4.89 and 4 years, respectively. Ninety % of group A experienced their first IVF experience, while in group B it was slightly lower than 86%, which was not statistically significant. The mean number of eggs obtained in group A was 9.84 and in the group B was 9.88 (p=0.962). The mean number of embryos formed in group A was 6.24 and in group B was 5.72 (p=0.405). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in using of Tenaculum, the quality of transmission, and the contamination of the catheter head into the blood or mucus.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: According to the findings of the present study, the use of KITAZATO catheter compared to PM TRANS SET MINI CH3 catheter for fetal transfer in IVF patients showed no significant difference in pregnancy success rate. However, patients who received the KITAZATO catheter had a slightly higher chance of pregnancy that could be clinically valuable.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Soghra Rabiei Mahnaz Yavangi Marzieh Farimani Iraj Amiri Mohamad Fallah Hasan Bahrami Shahedeh Khansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 7 3 3678 3685 10.15419/bmrat.v7i3.594 title description none g Comparison of the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia on analgesia and blood gases in neonates born by natural vaginal delivery: A clinical trial study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: One of the concerns of painless deliveries is the safety of neonates. This clinical trial study aimed to compare the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia on the mortality rate of neonates.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This clinical trial was conducted in Hamadan Hospital in Iran. Ninety women, ages 18 to 45, were randomly assigned to receive epidural or subdural anesthesia. Using a checklist, the following were collected: demographic information, midwifery, hemodynamic status, mothers' pain intensity, and analyses of the baby's umbilical cord blood. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 for statistical analysis. Twenty-two of the patients with spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gestational age, parity, and severity of pain before or after anesthesia. The hemodynamic status of the mothers before and during the first postoperative period was in the normal range, except that in the spinal group, a decrease in systolic blood pressure was observed in normal range compared with the epidural anesthesia group. In blood gas analysis, the mean pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO<sub>2</sub>), and bicarbonate (HCO<sub>3</sub>) did not show significant differences between the two groups (p &gt; 0.05). The only complications were acidosis and epidural anesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the findings of the present study, both spinal and epidural opioids have no adverse effects on the health of neonates. However, both spinal and epidural opioid are preferred due to fewer changes in the hemodynamic changes in mothers and in umbilical cord blood gas.</p> Soghra Rabiei Pouran Hajian Azar Pirdehghan Khatereh Mabodi Shahedeh Khansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 7 3 3686 3692 10.15419/bmrat.v7i3.595 title description none g