Evaluating serum C-reactive protein level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its correlation with disease severity
Serum hsCRP is higher in the COPD group than the control group matched based on age, and hsCRP is correlated with the severity of COPD. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required for evaluating this correlation in patients with COPD....
Mesenchymal stem cells accelerate liver regeneration in acute liver failure animal model
The study showed an significant (P<0.001) increase of PDGF and VEGF levels on the 2nd day, followed by a decrease on the 7th day, along with a decrease of SGPT and SGOT levels as well as the normality of histology appearance.....
Mesenchymal stem cells for diabetes mellitus treatment: new advances
MSC transplantation in preclinical trials and clinical trials for T1DM and T2DM have shown a moderate to significant improvement in diabetes without adverse side effects. In this review, we will discuss some of the updates from preclinical and clinical trials of MSC transplantation for diabetes....
Comparison of the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia on analgesia and blood gases in neonates born by natural vaginal delivery: A clinical trial study
Summary: One of the concerns of painless deliveries is the safety of neonates. This clinical trial study aimed to compare the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia on the mortality rate of neonates.
A comparison of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome by two types of soft embryo transfer catheters
Summary: One of the remaining challenges in assisted reproductive procedures, especially in vitro fertilization (IVF), is proper embryo transfer. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare IVFembryo transfer outcome by two types of soft embryo transfer catheters in Hamadan Endometrics and Endometriosis Research Center (Iran).
Reported Polio cases in Pakistan during 2019
Summary: This report describes polio cases, vaccination uncertainty and challenges, and the way forward to eradicate polio from Pakistan. Numerous articles, government and non-government documents, and survey reports were studied and an online search was made to collect information on polio in Pakistan. Once again the polio vaccination program has been stopped and accused by the local community in Pakistan as a result an increase has been seen in polio cases in the last year. In 2019, a total of 117 wild poliovirus (WPV) and 18 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported from the country. The majority of cases were from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province as a result of polio vaccination uncertainty and many challenges faced by the vaccination program in the region. Pakistan reported their highest annual number of WPV cases as compared to last few years. This increase is not only an alarming threat for the country but also a key challenge for the global polio eradication movement. Increase awareness and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas especially in the remote area where every year many children missed vaccination to achieve global polio eradication goals.
Anti-tumor activity of plant extracts against human breast cancer cells are different in monolayer and three-dimensional cell culture screening models: A comparison on 34 extracts
Summary: The monolayer cell culture model is a popular model for screening anti-tumor activity of plant extracts. However, almost the extracts selected for screening in this model have failed in subsequent animal models. Therefore, there is only about 5 % of candidates from the original thousands of drugs that are screened which ultimately reach clinical trial. This study aimed to compare the differences in anti-tumor activity of 34 plant extracts against breast cancer cells in 2 models of monolayer cell culture (2D) and in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture.
Sodium citrate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells
Summary: Cancer cells rely on glycolysis to generate energy and synthesize biomass for cell growth and proliferation (the Warburg effect). Recent studies have shown that citrate has an inhibitory effect on several cancer cells, such as human gastric cancer and ovarian cancer, by inhibiting glycolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of citrate on the proliferation and apoptosis induction of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Emerging regulatory roles of mitochondrial sirtuins on pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the related metabolic diseases: Review
Summary: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a multi-enzyme complex of the mitochondria that provides a link between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. PDC plays an essential role in producing acetyl-CoA from glucose and the regulation of fuel consumption. In general, PDC enzyme is regulated in two different ways, end-product inhibition and posttranslational modifications (more extensive phosphorylation and dephosphorylation subunit E1). Posttranslational modifications of this enzyme are regulated by various factors. Sirtuins are the class III of histone deacylatases that catalyze protein posttranslational modifications, including deacetylation, adenosine diphosphate ribosylation, and deacylation. Sirt3, Sirt4, and Sirt5 are mitochondrial sirtuins that control the posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial protein. Considering the comprehensive role of sirtuins in post-translational modifications and regulation of metabolic processes, the aim of this review is to explore the role of mitochondrial sirtuins in the regulation of the PDC. PDC deficiency is a common metabolic disorder that causes pyruvate to be converted to lactate and alanine rather than to acetyl-CoA. because this enzyme is in the gateway of complete oxidation, glucose products entering the Krebs cycle and resulting in physiological and structural changes in the organs. Metabolic blockage such as ketogenic diet broken up by b -oxidation and producing acetyl-CoA can improve the patients. Sirtuins play a role in the production of acetyl-CoA through oxidation of fatty acids and other pathways. Thus, we hypothesize that the targets and bioactive compounds targeting mitochondrial sirtuins can be involved in the treatment of PDC deficiency. In general, this review discusses the present knowledge on how mitochondrial sirtuins are involved in the regulation of PDC as well as their possible roles in the treatment of PDC deficiency.
Acute dysfunctional status of hepatorenal tissues of rats administered with leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae)
Summary: Given the vast medicinal properties of Ocimum gratissimum, the present study evaluated, in comparative terms, the acute dysfunctional status of hepatorenal tissues of Wistar rats administered with petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) leaf extracts of O. gratissimum.
The ability of GCS, FOUR, and APACHE II in predicting the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury: A comparative study
Summary: Assessment of the neurological condition of patients admitted to intensive care units gives healthcare professionals the necessary knowledge to attempt to improve their condition and final outcome. Such an assessment cannot be done without a highly reliable and accurate instrument. This study aimed to compare the ability of GCS and FOUR scales to assess the level of consciousness and dysfunction in patients with traumatic brain injury.
Diagnostic and therapeutic value of micro-RNAs in inflammatory bowel disease
Summary: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease that includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease with uncertain etiology and pathogenesis. The prevalence of IBD has steadily increased worldwide, affecting numerous groups of people in both developed and developing countries. Current guidelines are being re-defined with the aim for patients with established IBD to achieve mucosal healing and complete morphological figures with minimal drug toxicity, to diminish the likelihood of extra-intestinal manifestations and dysplasia/ colorectal cancer, and to prevent the need for surgery. Many patients with established IBD may require conventional treatment, as well as alternative treatment, due to non-response, loss of response, or intolerance to treatment regimen. In this context, stratification of risk and management of IBD could be based on personified strategy predominantly allocated to core components of pathogenesis of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are defined as non-coding short RNAs which are involved in various stages of the natural evolution of IBD. Recent animal and clinical studies have shown the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and signature of miRNAs in susceptibility to IBD, risk of clinical and histological exacerbation, and remission. The aim of the review is to summarize the knowledge regarding use of miRNAs as biomarkers and molecular targets in IBD.
Expression and characterization of a new serine protease inhibitory protein in Escherichia coli
T., T., H.,
T., T., K.,
V., T., T.,
N., T., K.,
Summary: Proteases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds and play an important role in almost all biological processes. However, excessive protein proteolysis can be implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, as well as cardiovascular, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. In these cases, protease inhibitors can be used as one of versatile tools for regulating proteolytic activity of target proteases as well as therapeutic applications. In this study, we expressed and characterized a new serine protease inhibitory protein (PI-QT) from the metagenome of sponge-associated microorganisms in Escherichia coli.
Urinary protein profile changes in diabetic rats and pre-diabetic rats fed with high-fat diets
Summary: Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus, accounting for 90% of all types of diabetes. Diet is one of the important factors affecting the progression of the disease.
Docking-based virtual screening in search for natural PTP1B inhibitors in treating type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity
Summary: Growing incidence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), together with obesity, shows the complexity and progressive nature of these metabolic disorders and alarms the necessity to explore new and alternative therapeutic pathways and drugs. Diabetes has also been proven to be a key cause of premature aging through different mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms could lead us to manage diabetes more efficiently, thus curtailing its age-related complications. Insulin and leptin resistance are the most common pathophysiological link between T2DM and obesity. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is thought to interfere with glucose homeostasis and satiety through down-regulation of insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Thus, drugs that are potent to impede this enzyme should be effective in treating T2DM and obesity.
Hibiscus sabdariffa extract as anti-aging supplement through its antioxidant and anti-obesity activities
Z., M., R.,
Summary: Imbalance between total energy intake and expenditure causes accumulation of excess fat and sugar in the body which leads to development of diabetes mellitus type II, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. These harmful diseases accelerate aging and cause fatal metabolic disorders as people age. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase, and alpha glucosidase digestive enzymes is a step that can reduce excess fat and sugar from the body, which is an essential component of healthy aging.
Antimicrobial stewardship in residential aged care facilities: A Systematic Review
Summary: Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) programs are increasingly implemented in healthcare facilities to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is one of the leading causes of increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). As such, decreasing inappropriate use of antimicrobials can reduce AMR. The main objective of this systematic review was to identify the effectiveness of AMS interventions in reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs).
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