Evaluating serum C-reactive protein level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its correlation with disease severity
Serum hsCRP is higher in the COPD group than the control group matched based on age, and hsCRP is correlated with the severity of COPD. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required for evaluating this correlation in patients with COPD....
Mesenchymal stem cells accelerate liver regeneration in acute liver failure animal model
The study showed an significant (P<0.001) increase of PDGF and VEGF levels on the 2nd day, followed by a decrease on the 7th day, along with a decrease of SGPT and SGOT levels as well as the normality of histology appearance.....
Mesenchymal stem cells for diabetes mellitus treatment: new advances
MSC transplantation in preclinical trials and clinical trials for T1DM and T2DM have shown a moderate to significant improvement in diabetes without adverse side effects. In this review, we will discuss some of the updates from preclinical and clinical trials of MSC transplantation for diabetes....
Concise review: The role of cancer-derived exosomes in tumorigenesis and immune cell modulation
by Thao Huynh
Summary: Exosomes are subcellular entities which were first discovered in the 1980s. Over the past decade, scientists have discovered that they carry components of genetic information that allow for cell-cell communication and cell targeting. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are termed cancer-derived exosomes (CDEs), and play an important role in tumor formation and progression. Specifically, CDEs mediate the communication between cancer cells, as well as between cancer cells and other cells in the tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and effector immune cells. Additionally, through the vascular system and body fluids, CDEs can modulate response to drugs, increase angiogenesis, stimulate proliferation, promote invasion and metastasis, and facilitate escape from immune surveillance. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer cells and other cells (particularly immune cells), as mediated through CDEs, as well as the subsequent impact on tumorigenesis and immunomodulation. Understanding the role of CDEs in tumorigenesis and immune cell modulation will help advance their utilization in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancer.
Current strategies for adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: â€ťOff-the-shelfâ€ť immune cells
by Ngo Trong
Le Van Manh
Summary: Immunotherapy, especially immune cell-based therapy, is a strategy for cancer treatment that has over the past decades focused on novel modifications and targets. In recent years, adoptive cell immunotherapy has continuously evolved, with studies of different platforms utilizing different immune effector cells to kill a variety of cancer cells. This review summarizes the various kinds of immune cells which have been used in adoptive cell therapy (ACT), including natural killer cells, cytokine-induced killer cells, T cells, and engineered immune cells. Most reports have shown that ACT can induce tumor regression, both in animal studies and clinical trials. However, the high cost of ACT is the greatest disadvantage of this strategy. Moreover, the efficacy of treatment is variable among patients. To reduce these disadvantages, off-the-shelf immune cells are considered the best solution to reduce the cost while maintaining the efficacy of treatment. In this review, we will discuss the potential of various kinds of immune cells for development as ``off-the-shelf'' immune cells for use in adoptive cell therapy, based on their unique advantages.
A retrospective analysis of pyogenic liver abscess and antibiotic resistivity of common pathogens in Peshawar
Summary: Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a rare but life-threatening disease, with a frequency ranging from 10.83 to 17.45 per 100,000 persons. The major cause of PLA is bacterial infection of liver parenchyma. The present research study was designed to investigate the common microbes causing PLA in Peshawar (Pakistan) and to evaluate a variety of the most capable and efficient antibiotics for treatment of PLA.
A simple and scalable method to generate spheroids from human mesenchymal stem cells for use in tissue engineering
Summary: Tissue engineering is a field suited for applying stem cells, besides stem cell transplantation. In the current tissue engineering approaches, stem cells are typically seeded onto a suitable scaffold and induced into specific tissues under particular conditions. However, this strategy has faced some limitations, namely that stem cell proliferation on the scaffolds' surface has been inefficient to fill the porous scaffolds to produce solid tissues. Some limitations have been improved by using stem cell spheroids on the scaffold in place of single stem cells. This study aimed to evaluate a simple and feasible method to produce spheroids of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose and umbilical cord tissues for use in tissue engineering.
The effects of analytic group therapy compared with pharmacotherapy in patients with anxiety disorders
Summary: Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are both effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, drugs in pharmacotherapy are often compared with placebo controls, and psychotherapy is mostly compared to patients in the waiting list as the controls. We aimed to compare the effects of analytic group therapy with pharmacotherapy in patients with anxiety disorders.
Correction to: Quenching of singlet oxygen by natural and synthetic antioxidants and assessment of electronic UV/Visible absorption spectra for alleviating or enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy
Summary: The original article1 contains an error in the author affiliation. The author affiliation is corrected as below:
Gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran: Five-year survival analysis of population-based cancer registry results
Summary: Gastric cancer is the most common cancer with significant increasing trends during the last decade in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic profile of gastric cancer along with gastric cancer-specific survival analysis.
The role of tumor-derived exosomes in tumor immune escape: A concise review
Summary: Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by viable cells into the microenvironment. These vesicles bring various compositions, including lipids, RNAs and proteins, which carry information from producer cells to target cells. Cancer cells also produce exosomes, termed as tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs), which play important roles in immune modulation, angiogenesis and metastasis of tumors. This review summarizes the roles of TDEs in tumor immune escape mechanisms. TDEs affect all kinds of tumor-associated immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), T and B lymphocytes, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Generally, TDEs suppress the immune system to promote tumor immune escape, thereby significantly contributing to tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Fetuin-A gene polymorphism and its serum level association with atherosclerotic vascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic kidney disease
Summary: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing over the past years. Early identification and management of its complications, especially diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is of great importance. Multiple factors play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM and DKD. We aimed to study Fetuin-A gene polymorphisms and Fetuin-A serum levels in T2DM patients with early DKD.
Biogenic silver nanoparticles induce apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma
Summary: Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is accounted as an ecofriendly process. The present study was conducted to estimate the potency of biogenic AgNPs against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vitro and EAC-bearing mice in vivo.
Probiotics: Helpful for the prevention of COVID-19?
Summary: Up to now, no vaccine has been developed for COVID-19 treatment. Although many scientists are working for the rapid development of a vaccine to control this pandemic, nonetheless, it will take time. If the vaccine will be developed soon, it will not be available to the entire world instantly since the mass production of the vaccine will take time. In this scenario, we will have to take alternative measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic. These alternative approaches include the stimulation of the immune system to fight against viral infections. Among the different approaches to strengthen the immune system, the use of probiotics is the best one. Probiotics can help the body to fight against COVID-19 directly and indirectly. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the use of probiotics for the prevention and control of COVID-19.
Clinical decision-making approaches by health caregivers of patients with COVID-19
Summary: The Coronavirus disease of 2019 COVID-19) is the current health crisis in the world- a new, complex phenomenon that has affected and hospitalized many people around the world. Health care providers deal with COVID-19 patients daily and care for the patients while there is no definitive cure for it. Clinical decision-making is an important task of health professionals that plays an essential role in preserving the patient's life and providing quality care. Therefore, understanding clinical decision-making approaches by healthcare providers, such as nurses and physicians, especially in crises such as COVID-19, is essential.
Kidney damage by COVID-19 and rationale for extracorporeal therapies
Summary: Without doubt, there is some involvement of the kidney in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is responsible for multiple organ dysfunctions resulting in severe complications in the human body. This newly discovered COVID-19 has incited panic globally. However, the role of kidney involvement in the novel COVID-19 disease is still unclear. In this commentary, we discuss the various pathways involved in kidney damage by COVID-19, and the rationale for extracorporeal support with various blood purification strategies in critically ill people with COVID 19.
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